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Gene Review

Grm5  -  glutamate receptor, metabotropic 5

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Gprc1e, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, Mglur5, mGluR5, mGlur5
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Disease relevance of Grm5


Psychiatry related information on Grm5

  • We hypothesized that, like NMDA receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) modulate PPI and locomotor activity either alone or, in the case of mGluR5, via interaction with NMDA receptors [6].
  • The selective mGlu5 antagonist MTEP [3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-ethynyl]-pyridine; 15 mg/kg s.c.] reduced refeeding after overnight food deprivation in mGluR5+/+, but not mGluR5-/- mice, demonstrating that feeding suppression is mediated via a mGlu5 mechanism [7].
  • Thus, these findings confirm and extend previous reports that MPEP exhibits anxiolytic-like activity in rats, and suggests that development of mGluR5 antagonists may provide a novel approach to treating anxiety disorders [8].

High impact information on Grm5

  • Stimulation of two metabotropic glutamate-receptor subtypes, mGluR1 and mGluR5, triggers the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores through the inositol-(1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP3) pathway [9].
  • The metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR5, has a critical role in induction of NMDA-receptor-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity [10].
  • We have investigated the mechanism by which NMDA receptor activation modulates mGluR5 function and find evidence that this response is mediated by activation of a protein phosphatase and a resultant dephosphorylation of protein kinase C phosphorylation sites on mGluR5 [10].
  • Activation of NMDA receptors reverses desensitization of mGluR5 in native and recombinant systems [10].
  • The results suggest that a functional mGluR5/A2AR interaction is required to overcome the well-known strong tonic inhibitory effect of dopamine on striatal adenosine A2AR function [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Grm5

  • Our results indicated that 6 to 24 h after global ischemia, mGluR5-induced cationic currents and mGluR5-mediated enhancement of NMDA-evoked currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons were significantly reduced [12].
  • However, no effect was seen of MPEP (1.5, 3, or 6 mg/kg, i.p.) on haloperidol-induced catalepsy (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Altogether, these results suggest a specific role of mGluRs in the regulation of extrapyramidal motor functions and a potential therapeutic value for mGluR5 antagonists in the treatment of Parkinson's disease [13].
  • Within the basal ganglia, receptors of group I (mGluR1 and mGluR5) are widely expressed; the present study was thus aimed at blocking these receptors in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease in the rat [13].
  • Neuroprotection rendered by MPEP may be associated with the reduction of the methamphetamine-induced dopamine efflux in the striatum due to the blockade of extrastriatal mGluR5, and with a decrease in hyperthermia [14].
  • The results of this study suggest that the blockade of mGluR5 by MPEP may protect dopaminergic neurones against methamphetamine-induced toxicity [14].

Biological context of Grm5


Anatomical context of Grm5

  • In order to elucidate the function of these receptors in the biology of the extrapyramidal motor system, we have used in situ hybridization to examine the regional and cellular expression patterns of mGluR1-mGluR5 in the adult rat basal ganglia [20].
  • Blot and in situ hybridization analyses indicated that mGluR5 mRNA is widely distributed in neuronal cells of the central nervous system and is expressed differently from mGluR1 mRNA in many brain regions [17].
  • These results demonstrate that the activation of mGluR5 and in turn triggering a PLC/PKC-dependent signaling cascade may contribute to the induction of LTP of primary afferent synaptic transmission in the superficial layer of trigeminal caudal nucleus of juvenile rats [21].
  • Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that DCG-IV does not activate mGluR5 expressed in oocytes and does not activate mGluR7 expressed in BHK cells [22].
  • In general, there was only light staining for the various mGluR1 splice variants, whereas labelling for the other Group I receptor, mGluR5, was heavier and with a pattern which suggested that at least some label arose from retinal afferents to the superficial superior colliculus [23].

Associations of Grm5 with chemical compounds

  • Molecular characterization of a novel metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 coupled to inositol phosphate/Ca2+ signal transduction [17].
  • This receptor also resembles mGluR1 in its agonist selectivity and antagonist responses; the potency rank order of agonists for mGluR5 was determined to be quisqualate greater than L-glutamate greater than or equal to ibotenate greater than trans-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylate [17].
  • For phosphoinositide-coupled receptors, the absolute content of mGluR1a mRNA was three to 10 times higher than the content of mGluR5 mRNA [24].
  • Accordingly, a synergistic effect on c-fos expression in striatal sections and on counteracting phencyclidine-induced motor activation was also demonstrated after the central coadministration of A2AR and mGluR5 agonists to rats with intact dopaminergic innervation [11].
  • Co-stimulation of mGluR5 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is required for potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal neurons [25].
  • The anti-inflammatory effects of CHPG are mediated by the mGluR5 receptor, because either a selective mGluR5 antagonist or small interference RNA knockdown attenuated the actions of this drug [26].

Physical interactions of Grm5

  • The microPET studies showed these three radiolabeled mGluR5 antagonists having the highest binding in the olfactory bulb followed by striatum, hippocampus and cortex [27].

Enzymatic interactions of Grm5


Regulatory relationships of Grm5

  • Conversely, a uniform distribution was observed when mGluR5 was expressed alone or with Homer short forms [29].
  • Role of protein phosphatase 2A in mGluR5-regulated MEK/ERK phosphorylation in neurons [30].
  • Here we investigated the interaction between NMDA receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the integral regulation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and gene expression in cultured rat striatal neurons [31].
  • Unexpectedly, activation of mGluR5 alone fails to enhance evoked NMDAR currents and synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR) AMPAR currents [25].
  • Double label in situ hybridization with 35S-dATP- and digoxygenin-dUTP-tailed oligonucleotide probes demonstrated that mGluR5 message is highly expressed by enkephalinergic striatal neurons but is not detectable in cholinergic or somatostatin interneurons [32].

Other interactions of Grm5

  • Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the mGluR4/mGluR6-mGluR8 agonist, L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4), the mGluR1/mGluR5 antagonists [33].
  • In contrast, mGluR3 and mGluR5 were highly expressed at birth and decreased during maturation to adult levels of expression [34].
  • A small number of bipolar cells were also labelled for mGluR5 and mGluR7 [35].
  • Both the Ca2+-dependent and -independent pathways are corequired to activate ERK1/2 to a level sufficient to achieve the mGluR5-dependent synapse-to-nucleus communication imperative for the transcriptional regulation [19].
  • Additional mechanistic studies revealed that mGluR5 activation increased tyrosine (Tyr307) phosphorylation of PP2A, which was dependent on activation of a p60c-Src family tyrosine kinase, but not the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase and resulted in dissociation of PP2A from mGluR5 and reduced PP2A activity [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Grm5

  • Complexes containing A2AR and mGluR5 were demonstrated by Western blotting of immunoprecipitates of either Flag-A2AR or hemagglutinin-mGluR5 in membrane preparations from cotransfected HEK-293 cells and of native A2AR and mGluR5 in rat striatal membrane preparations [11].
  • Colocalization of A2AR and mGluR5 at the membrane level was demonstrated in nonpermeabilized human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells transiently cotransfected with both receptors by confocal laser microscopy [11].
  • Further TaqMan real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay showed that mGluR5 mRNA expression in hippocampal CA1 region or single CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly downregulated following ischemic insults [12].
  • In order to determine whether such a distribution is uniform amongst postsynaptic mGluRs, their distribution was compared quantitatively by a pre-embedding silver-intensified immunogold technique at electron microscopic level in hippocampal pyramidal cells (mGluR5), cerebellar Purkinje cells (mGluR1 alpha) and Golgi cells (mGluR2) [36].
  • Vocalizations were recorded in the same animals before arthritis, 6 h after arthritis induction and during administration of antagonists selective for mGluR1 (CPCCOEt) and mGluR5 (MPEP) into the CeA through stereotaxically implanted microdialysis probes [37].


  1. Changes in metabotropic glutamate receptor mRNA levels following global ischemia: increase of a putative presynaptic subtype (mGluR4) in highly vulnerable rat brain areas. Iversen, L., Mulvihill, E., Haldeman, B., Diemer, N.H., Kaiser, F., Sheardown, M., Kristensen, P. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 prevents glutamate toxicity in primary cultures of cerebellar neurons. Montoliu, C., Llansola, M., Cucarella, C., Grisolía, S., Felipo, V. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Upregulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGluR3 and mGluR5 in reactive astrocytes in a rat model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Aronica, E., van Vliet, E.A., Mayboroda, O.A., Troost, D., da Silva, F.H., Gorter, J.A. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Exposure of astrocytes to thrombin reduces levels of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5. Miller, S., Sehati, N., Romano, C., Cotman, C.W. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Chronic exposure to ammonia alters the modulation of phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 2 by metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 5 in cerebellar neurons in culture. Llansola, M., Erceg, S., Felipo, V. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP, but not the mGluR2/3 agonist LY314582, augments PCP effects on prepulse inhibition and locomotor activity. Henry, S.A., Lehmann-Masten, V., Gasparini, F., Geyer, M.A., Markou, A. Neuropharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu5 is a mediator of appetite and energy balance in rats and mice. Bradbury, M.J., Campbell, U., Giracello, D., Chapman, D., King, C., Tehrani, L., Cosford, N.D., Anderson, J., Varney, M.A., Strack, A.M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Anxiolytic-like activity of the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP a comparison with diazepam and buspirone. Brodkin, J., Busse, C., Sukoff, S.J., Varney, M.A. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Control of calcium oscillations by phosphorylation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Kawabata, S., Tsutsumi, R., Kohara, A., Yamaguchi, T., Nakanishi, S., Okada, M. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Activation of NMDA receptors reverses desensitization of mGluR5 in native and recombinant systems. Alagarsamy, S., Marino, M.J., Rouse, S.T., Gereau, R.W., Heinemann, S.F., Conn, P.J. Nat. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Synergistic interaction between adenosine A2A and glutamate mGlu5 receptors: implications for striatal neuronal function. Ferré, S., Karcz-Kubicha, M., Hope, B.T., Popoli, P., Burgueño, J., Gutiérrez, M.A., Casadó, V., Fuxe, K., Goldberg, S.R., Lluis, C., Franco, R., Ciruela, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Global ischemia downregulates the function of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Yeh, T.H., Wang, H.L. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Chronic but not acute treatment with a metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor antagonist reverses the akinetic deficits in a rat model of parkinsonism. Breysse, N., Baunez, C., Spooren, W., Gasparini, F., Amalric, M. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Neuroprotective action of MPEP, a selective mGluR5 antagonist, in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is associated with a decrease in dopamine outflow and inhibition of hyperthermia in rats. Gołembiowska, K., Konieczny, J., Wolfarth, S., Ossowska, K. Neuropharmacology (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Multiple presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors modulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1. Gereau, R.W., Conn, P.J. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Signal transduction, pharmacological properties, and expression patterns of two rat metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR3 and mGluR4. Tanabe, Y., Nomura, A., Masu, M., Shigemoto, R., Mizuno, N., Nakanishi, S. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular characterization of a novel metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 coupled to inositol phosphate/Ca2+ signal transduction. Abe, T., Sugihara, H., Nawa, H., Shigemoto, R., Mizuno, N., Nakanishi, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. A novel class of positive allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 interact with a site distinct from that of negative allosteric modulators. Hemstapat, K., de Paulis, T., Chen, Y., Brady, A.E., Grover, V.K., Alagille, D., Tamagnan, G.D., Conn, P.J. Mol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. The scaffold protein Homer1b/c links metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascades in neurons. Mao, L., Yang, L., Tang, Q., Samdani, S., Zhang, G., Wang, J.Q. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Metabotropic glutamate receptor mRNA expression in the basal ganglia of the rat. Testa, C.M., Standaert, D.G., Young, A.B., Penney, J.B. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of long-term potentiation of primary afferent transmission at trigeminal synapses of juvenile rats: essential role of subtype 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors. Liang, Y.C., Huang, C.C., Hsu, K.S. Pain (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Roles of specific metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes in regulation of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell excitability. Gereau, R.W., Conn, P.J. J. Neurophysiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Distribution of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the superior colliculus of the adult rat, ferret and cat. Cirone, J., Sharp, C., Jeffery, G., Salt, T.E. Neuroscience (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Temporal and depolarization-induced changes in the absolute amounts of mRNAs encoding metabotropic glutamate receptors in cerebellar granule neurons in vitro. Santi, M.R., Ikonomovic, S., Wroblewski, J.T., Grayson, D.R. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Co-stimulation of mGluR5 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is required for potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal neurons. Kotecha, S.A., Jackson, M.F., Al-Mahrouki, A., Roder, J.C., Orser, B.A., MacDonald, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 modulates microglial reactivity and neurotoxicity by inhibiting NADPH oxidase. Loane, D.J., Stoica, B.A., Pajoohesh-Ganji, A., Byrnes, K.R., Faden, A.I. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  27. Methoxyphenylethynyl, methoxypyridylethynyl and phenylethynyl derivatives of pyridine: synthesis, radiolabeling and evaluation of new PET ligands for metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors. Yu, M., Tueckmantel, W., Wang, X., Zhu, A., Kozikowski, A.P., Brownell, A.L. Nucl. Med. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 in striatal neurons. Orlando, L.R., Dunah, A.W., Standaert, D.G., Young, A.B. Neuropharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Homer proteins regulate coupling of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors to N-type calcium and M-type potassium channels. Kammermeier, P.J., Xiao, B., Tu, J.C., Worley, P.F., Ikeda, S.R. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of protein phosphatase 2A in mGluR5-regulated MEK/ERK phosphorylation in neurons. Mao, L., Yang, L., Arora, A., Choe, E.S., Zhang, G., Liu, Z., Fibuch, E.E., Wang, J.Q. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. A novel Ca2+-independent signaling pathway to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase by coactivation of NMDA receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in neurons. Yang, L., Mao, L., Tang, Q., Samdani, S., Liu, Z., Wang, J.Q. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Differential expression of mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor mRNA by rat striatal neurons. Testa, C.M., Standaert, D.G., Landwehrmeyer, G.B., Penney, J.B., Young, A.B. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. The contribution of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) to formalin-induced nociception. Fisher, K., Coderre, T.J. Pain (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are differentially regulated during development. Catania, M.V., Landwehrmeyer, G.B., Testa, C.M., Standaert, D.G., Penney, J.B., Young, A.B. Neuroscience (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Expression of the mRNA of seven metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 to 7) in the rat retina. An in situ hybridization study on tissue sections and isolated cells. Hartveit, E., Brandstätter, J.H., Enz, R., Wässle, H. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Differential plasma membrane distribution of metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1 alpha, mGluR2 and mGluR5, relative to neurotransmitter release sites. Luján, R., Roberts, J.D., Shigemoto, R., Ohishi, H., Somogyi, P. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. mGluR1 and mGluR5 antagonists in the amygdala inhibit different components of audible and ultrasonic vocalizations in a model of arthritic pain. Han, J.S., Neugebauer, V. Pain (2005) [Pubmed]
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