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Gene Review

AKR1C4  -  aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C4...

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Disease relevance of AKR1C1


Psychiatry related information on AKR1C1


High impact information on AKR1C1


Chemical compound and disease context of AKR1C1

  • Dispersed bovine parathyroid cells treated with or without 0.5 micrograms/ml pertussis toxin were tested with stimulatory (epinephrine, isoproterenol) or inhibitory (PGF2 alpha) agonists for responses in cAMP accumulation (5-min incubation) or PTH (90-min incubation) release [3].
  • Concentrations of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were evaluated in the milk of cows with naturally occurring (n = 3) and experimentally induced (n = 5) acute coliform mastitis [10].
  • The PGF2 alpha appears to regress the luteinized ovarian cysts and cows exhibit estrus 2 to 3 d after PGF2 alpha treatment (11 to 12 d after GnRH) [11].
  • Baseline adenocarcinoma production of PGF2 alpha was 117.5 pmol/10(6) cells and fell to 24.2 pmol/10(6) cells hours following incubation with indomethacin [12].
  • Clinical endometritis at post-partum examination did not influence progesterone levels after treatment with PGF2 alpha [13].

Biological context of AKR1C1

  • Moreover, the amino acid sequence of the liver-type PGF synthase was identical with that of bovine liver DD3 [14].
  • cDNA cloning, expression, and mutagenesis study of liver-type prostaglandin F synthase [14].
  • Using the cDNA of bovine lung prostaglandin F synthase (EC as a probe, we isolated a clone from a bovine liver cDNA library which differed in only eleven nucleotides from the probe [2].
  • Thus, significant overexpression of a human aldo-keto reductase structurally related to bovine prostaglandin F synthase may result from exposure of cells to Michael reaction acceptors and may give rise to an enhanced capacity to metabolize exogenous and endogenous substrates, thereby contributing to the drug-resistant phenotype [15].
  • These data indicate that apoptosis occurs during both spontaneous and PGF2 alpha-induced luteal regression in cattle; however, apoptosis, as indicated by oligonucleosome formation, is not apparent until after serum progesterone concentrations have begun to decrease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[16]

Anatomical context of AKR1C1


Associations of AKR1C1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of AKR1C1

  • Oxytocin then binds to its endometrial receptors and initiates luteolytic pulses of PGF-2 alpha [22].

Regulatory relationships of AKR1C1

  • Conceptuses of sheep and cattle produce proteins which, when introduced into the uterine lumen of nonpregnant ewes and cows, suppress the ability of oestradiol and oxytocin to stimulate uterine production of PGF-2 alpha [23].
  • Twice daily i.m. injections of PGF-2 alpha on Days 3 and 4 of the bovine oestrous cycle inhibited progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum and induced precocious oestrus [24].

Other interactions of AKR1C1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AKR1C1


  1. The aldo-keto reductase superfamily. cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases. Bohren, K.M., Bullock, B., Wermuth, B., Gabbay, K.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. A lung type prostaglandin F synthase is expressed in bovine liver: cDNA sequence and expression in E. coli. Kuchinke, W., Barski, O., Watanabe, K., Hayaishi, O. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Prostaglandin F2 alpha and alpha-adrenergic agonists regulate parathyroid cell function via the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein. Fitzpatrick, L.A., Brandi, M.L., Aurbach, G.D. Endocrinology (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Preliminary pharmacological characterization of the bovine isolated bronchial artery strip: a new preparation. Arowolo, R.O., Eyre, P. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of oxytocin/prostaglandin F-2 alpha interrelationships in cyclic and pregnant cows. Parkinson, T.J., Jenner, L.J., Lamming, G.E. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Relationship between uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha induced by oxytocin and endogenous concentrations of estradiol and progesterone at three stages of the bovine estrous cycle. Silvia, W.J., Taylor, M.L. J. Anim. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Structural similarity of bovine lung prostaglandin F synthase to lens epsilon-crystallin of the European common frog. Watanabe, K., Fujii, Y., Nakayama, K., Ohkubo, H., Kuramitsu, S., Kagamiyama, H., Nakanishi, S., Hayaishi, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in bovine luteal cells. Davis, J.S., Weakland, L.L., Weiland, D.A., Farese, R.V., West, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Stereospecific conversion of prostaglandin D2 to (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9 alpha-11 beta,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (9 alpha,11 beta-prostaglandin F2) and of prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin F2 alpha by bovine lung prostaglandin F synthase. Watanabe, K., Iguchi, Y., Iguchi, S., Arai, Y., Hayaishi, O., Roberts, L.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Arachidonic acid metabolites in milk of cows during acute coliform mastitis. Anderson, K.L., Kindahl, H., Petroni, A., Smith, A.R., Gustafsson, B.K. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Ovarian cysts in dairy cattle: a review. Kesler, D.J., Garverick, H.A. J. Anim. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Modulation of endothelial cell permeability by lung carcinoma cells: a potential mechanism of malignant pleural effusion formation. Payne, D.K., Fuseler, J.W., Owens, M.W. Inflammation (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Serum progesterone levels in post-partum dairy cows after repeated application of the prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue D (+) cloprostenol sodium. Tenhagen, B.A., Birkelbach, E., Heuwieser, W. Journal of veterinary medicine. A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. cDNA cloning, expression, and mutagenesis study of liver-type prostaglandin F synthase. Suzuki, T., Fujii, Y., Miyano, M., Chen, L.Y., Takahashi, T., Watanabe, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Overproduction of a 37.5-kDa cytosolic protein structurally related to prostaglandin F synthase in ethacrynic acid-resistant human colon cells. Ciaccio, P.J., Stuart, J.E., Tew, K.D. Mol. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Apoptosis during luteal regression in cattle. Juengel, J.L., Garverick, H.A., Johnson, A.L., Youngquist, R.S., Smith, M.F. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. An aldose reductase with 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity is most likely the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandin f2 alpha in the bovine endometrium. Madore, E., Harvey, N., Parent, J., Chapdelaine, P., Arosh, J.A., Fortier, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Decreased neutrophil thromboxane A2 and endothelial PGI2 production in the postoperative period. An in vitro assay for detection of neutrophil and plasma dysfunction. Krausz, M.M., Hartzstark, Z., Shlomai, Z., Gross, D., Matzner, Y., Eldor, A., Vlodavsky, I., Bassat, H.B. Ann. Surg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Dimethylthiourea prevents hydrogen peroxide and neutrophil mediated damage to lung endothelial cells in vitro and disappears in the process. Toth, K.M., Harlan, J.M., Beehler, C.J., Berger, E.M., Parker, N.B., Linas, S.L., Repine, J.E. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Contractile responses of isolated bovine retinal microarteries to acetylcholine. Hoste, A.M., Andries, L.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA for rat liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase. Pawlowski, J.E., Huizinga, M., Penning, T.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Physiological mechanisms of pregnancy recognition in ruminants. Bazer, F.W., Thatcher, W.W., Hansen, P.J., Mirando, M.A., Ott, T.L., Plante, C. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Role of conceptus secretory products in establishment of pregnancy. Bazer, F.W., Vallet, J.L., Roberts, R.M., Sharp, D.C., Thatcher, W.W. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Oestrous cycle length and plasma progesterone concentrations following administration of prostaglandin F-2 alpha early in the bovine oestrous cycle. Beal, W.E., Milvae, R.A., Hansel, W. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1980) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin F synthase gene expression by steroid hormones and interferon-tau in bovine endometrial cells. Xiao, C.W., Liu, J.M., Sirois, J., Goff, A.K. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta on oxytocin-induced release of prostaglandin F-2 alpha in heifers. Lafrance, M., Goff, A.K. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of active immunization of pre-partum and post-partum cows against prostaglandin F-2 alpha on lifespan and progesterone secretion of short-lived corpora lutea. Copelin, J.P., Smith, M.F., Keisler, D.H., Garverick, H.A. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of genistein and lavendustin on reproductive processes in domestic animals in vitro. Makarevich, A., Sirotkin, A., Taradajnik, T., Chrenek, P. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Arachidonic acid metabolism by cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells. Gerritsen, M.E., Rimarachin, J., Perry, C.A., Weinstein, B.I. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate formation in bovine luteal cells. Duncan, R.A., Davis, J.S. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of 17 beta-estradiol on distribution of pituitary isoforms of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the follicular phase of the bovine estrous cycle. Kojima, F.N., Cupp, A.S., Stumpf, T.T., Zalesky, D.D., Roberson, M.S., Werth, L.A., Wolfe, M.W., Kittok, R.J., Grotjan, H.E., Kinder, J.E. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Regulation of steady-state concentrations of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding prostaglandin F2 alpha receptor in ovine corpus luteum. Juengel, J.L., Wiltbank, M.C., Meberg, B.M., Niswender, G.D. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Coronary artery constriction by the isoprostane 8-epi prostaglandin F2 alpha. Kromer, B.M., Tippins, J.R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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