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Gene Review

GYPE  -  glycophorin E (MNS blood group)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GPE, Glycophorin-E, MNS, MiIX
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Disease relevance of GYPE

  • The Milan hypertensive strain of rats (MHS) develops a genetic form of renal hypertension that, when compared to its normotensive control (MNS), shows renal dysfunction similar to that of a subset of human patients with primary hypertension [1].
  • Inflammation can be blocked with anti-cell adhesion molecules MAb, simultaneously protected oligodendrocytes and neurons against glutamate-mediated damage with the AMPA/kainate antagonist NBQX, and the NMDA receptor antagonist GPE, could thus be effective therapies for multiple sclerosis [2].
  • In this study, 102 herpes simplex virus isolates were typed by cell culture selection (chicken embryo cells and guinea pig embryo cells [CE/GPE]), (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) sensitivity, plaque reduction neutralization, and indirect immunofluorescence staining techniques [3].
  • OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We studied cutaneous and mixed nerve silent periods (CSP, MNSP) in 4 patients with cervical syringomyelia documented by magnetic resonance imaging who on clinical examination presented with unilateral hypalgesia and hypothermesthesia [4].
  • At the permissive temperature (37 degrees C), complete intracytoplasmic and/or extracellular virus particles were associated with every infected cell in the MNS cell or MEC cultures [5].

Psychiatry related information on GYPE


High impact information on GYPE

  • Further duplication and divergence of this gene yielded the GPB and GPE genes [7].
  • Downstream from the Alu sequence, the nucleotide sequence of the precursor genomic segment is almost identical to that of the GPB or GPE gene [7].
  • Molecular analysis of human glycophorin MiIX gene shows a silent segment transfer and untemplated mutation resulting from gene conversion via sequence repeats [8].
  • We showed that M,N,S,s, blood group-specific sequences occur as multicopies in the human genome and reside within the alpha and delta glycophorin genes and also within the third glycophorin gene (glycophorin E gene) [9].
  • Scans were obtained in different sessions before and after 2-h electrical stimulation applied to the median nerve at the wrist (MNS), to the skin overlying the shoulder deltoid muscle (DMS), and in the absence of stimulation (NOSTIM) in a counterbalanced design [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of GYPE

  • Corneas from failed grafts had lower alpha-GP, ethanolamine phosphate (EP), ethanolamine phosphate and choline phosphate (EP&CP), monoesters/Pi, ATP/Pi, and energy modulus, no detectable GPE and GPC, and higher Pi, phosphorylglycans (PG), PCr, ADP, diesters, PCr/Pi, and PCr/ATP than those with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy (p less than 0.05) [11].

Biological context of GYPE

  • The GYPA, GYPB and GYPE gene cluster is known to be prone to mutation by radiation because there is a high incidence of somatic mutation events in atomic bomb survivors, in people exposed to accidental radiation, in patients with Bloom's syndrome and in patients receiving radiation therapy [12].
  • Contribution of gene conversion to the retention of the sequence for M blood group type determinant in glycophorin E gene [13].
  • To delineate evolutionary events leading to the formation of the sequences for M or N blood group type determinant in the members of human glycophorin gene family, the nucleotide sequences of a 1.45-kilobase pair region including the 3' part of intron 1, exon 2, and the entire intron 2 were compared for GPAM, GPAN, GPB, and GPE genes [13].
  • Encompassing exon 2, there were identical sequences stretches of 139 and 138 base pairs between GPAM and GPE genes and between GPAN and GPB genes, respectively [13].
  • A new member designated glycophorin E (GPE) has been recently identified in the course of molecular genetic studies [14].

Anatomical context of GYPE

  • There are 3-4 times more copies of GPA as compared with GPB on human erythrocytes (10(6) versus 2 x 10(5) copies/cell), whereas GPE is absent or poorly represented [15].
  • The increased expression of DNDS-sensitive chloride transport is highly specific to GPA, and is not observed when the cRNA to the putative glycophorin E or a very high concentration of the cRNA to glycophorin C are coexpressed with band 3 in oocytes [16].
  • To test whether this "mirror-neuron system" (MNS) would be activated by observation of tool use, we recorded neuromagnetic oscillatory activity from the primary motor cortex of 10 healthy subjects while they observed the experimenter to use chopsticks in a goal-directed and non-goal-directed manner [17].
  • GPE/T-1080 hybrid cells were selected in hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine (HAT) medium and by C3b and Fc rosette formation [18].
  • GPE treatment failed to rescue the calcium binding protein interneuron populations of parvalbumin and calretinin neurons [6].

Associations of GYPE with chemical compounds

  • Owing to the fact that PtdCho is biosynthetically converted to PtdEtn, excess PtdCho resulted in overproduction and exit of GPE as well as GPC [19].
  • In contrast, transgenic mice overexpressing glutathione peroxidase (hGPE) that received an intrastriatal infusion of malonate (3 mumol) into the left side had significantly less loss of striatal dopamine than their hGPE-negative littermates when assayed 1 week following infusion [20].
  • No associations were observed between anthropometric measures of MNS or CNS and fasting plasma glucose levels [21].
  • The sterically more favorable attack on the C-2 than C-2 of the glycerol results in the abundance of R2CO2- > R1CO2-. These features of tandem spectra readily identify and locate the fatty acid substituents of GPE in the glycerol backbone [22].
  • While few differences are noticeable in the fatty acid composition of PC and PE and the molecular species distribution of diacylGPC and diacylGPE, the alkenylacyl GPE (or ethanolamine plasmalogens) were found to differ significantly between patients and healthy controls [23].

Other interactions of GYPE

  • Identification of a novel human glycophorin, glycophorin E, by isolation of genomic clones and complementary DNA clones utilizing polymerase chain reaction [24].
  • Their families show that MiIX is inherited with a MS complex (lod score 3.69 at theta = 0.00) which produces a trypsin-resistant M antigen [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GYPE

  • The precise locations of exon 1 and the exon encoding the transmembrane (TM) domain in GPA, GPB and GPE were then determined by hybridization with specific probes after restricted DNA fragments were separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [26].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The novel magnetic navigation system (MNS) (Niobe, Stereotaxis) creates a steerable magnetic field (0.08 T) controlling the distal magnetic tip of an ablation catheter [27].
  • Gel retardation assay indicated that the CHU-2 and the macrophage cells contained nuclear factors which specifically bound to each GPE sequence [28].
  • STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A 20-year retrospective multicenter study was performed analyzing additional alloantibody formation, against the RH, KEL, FY, JK, and MNS blood group systems [29].
  • RESULTS: In univariate analysis stage, spontaneous micronucleus frequency before radiotherapy (MNSP) and per cent increment of micronucleus level in vivo after 20 Gy in relation to spontaneous pretreatment level were statistically significant predictors of 5-year recurrence-free, disease-free and overall survival [30].


  1. Two point mutations within the adducin genes are involved in blood pressure variation. Bianchi, G., Tripodi, G., Casari, G., Salardi, S., Barber, B.R., Garcia, R., Leoni, P., Torielli, L., Cusi, D., Ferrandi, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Anti-inflammatory immunotherapy for multiple sclerosis/experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) disease. Kanwar, J.R. Current medicinal chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparison of biological, biochemical, immunological, and immunochemical techniques for typing herpes simplex virus isolates. Zheng, Z.M., Mayo, D.R., Hsiung, G.D. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Cutaneous and mixed nerve silent periods in syringomyelia. Stetkarova, I., Kofler, M., Leis, A.A. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Temperature sensitivity of herpes simplex virus type 1 is a tissue-dependent phenomenon. Cole, N.L. Arch. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. The IGF-I amino-terminal tripeptide glycine-proline-glutamate (GPE) is neuroprotective to striatum in the quinolinic acid lesion animal model of Huntington's disease. Alexi, T., Hughes, P.E., van Roon-Mom, W.M., Faull, R.L., Williams, C.E., Clark, R.G., Gluckman, P.D. Exp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of a precursor genomic segment that provided a sequence unique to glycophorin B and E genes. Onda, M., Kudo, S., Rearden, A., Mattei, M.G., Fukuda, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular analysis of human glycophorin MiIX gene shows a silent segment transfer and untemplated mutation resulting from gene conversion via sequence repeats. Huang, C.H., Skov, F., Daniels, G., Tippett, P., Blumenfeld, O.O. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Typing of MNSs blood group specific sequences in the human genome and characterization of a restriction fragment tightly linked to S-s- alleles. Huang, C.H., Guizzo, M.L., McCreary, J., Leigh, E.M., Blumenfeld, O.O. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Enduring representational plasticity after somatosensory stimulation. Wu, C.W., van Gelderen, P., Hanakawa, T., Yaseen, Z., Cohen, L.G. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Phosphatic metabolism and corneal edema. Lass, J.H., Greiner, J.V., Reinhart, W.J., Medcalf, S.K., Glonek, T. Cornea (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Some concepts relating to the molecular genetic basis of certain MNS blood group antigens. Reid, M.E. Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England) (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Contribution of gene conversion to the retention of the sequence for M blood group type determinant in glycophorin E gene. Kudo, S., Fukuda, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Gerbich blood groups and minor glycophorins of human erythrocytes. Colin, Y. Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Société française de transfusion sanguine. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Post-transcriptional regulation of the cell surface expression of glycophorins A, B, and E. Rahuel, C., Elouet, J.F., Cartron, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. The effects of glycophorin A on the expression of the human red cell anion transporter (band 3) in Xenopus oocytes. Groves, J.D., Tanner, M.J. J. Membr. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of the human primary motor cortex during observation of tool use. Järveläinen, J., Schürmann, M., Hari, R. Neuroimage (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Establishment of a cell line retaining Langerhans cell characteristics. Berman, B., France, D.S. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Cellular responses to excess phospholipid. Baburina, I., Jackowski, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Energy stress-induced dopamine loss in glutathione peroxidase-overexpressing transgenic mice and in glutathione-depleted mesencephalic cultures. Zeevalk, G.D., Bernard, L.P., Albers, D.S., Mirochnitchenko, O., Nicklas, W.J., Sonsalla, P.K. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Maternal and child nutritional supplementation are inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose concentration in young Guatemalan adults. Conlisk, A.J., Barnhart, H.X., Martorell, R., Grajeda, R., Stein, A.D. J. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Charge-remote and charge-driven fragmentation processes in diacyl glycerophosphoethanolamine upon low-energy collisional activation: a mechanistic proposal. Hsu, F.F., Turk, J. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Phospholipid composition in late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Granier, L.A., Langley, K., Leray, C., Sarlieve, L.L. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of a novel human glycophorin, glycophorin E, by isolation of genomic clones and complementary DNA clones utilizing polymerase chain reaction. Kudo, S., Fukuda, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Miltenberger class IX of the MNS blood group system. Skov, F., Green, C., Daniels, G., Khalid, G., Tippett, P. Vox Sang. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Detailed physical mapping of the genes encoding glycophorins A, B and E, as revealed by P1 plasmids containing human genomic DNA. Onda, M., Fukuda, M. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Remote-controlled catheter ablation of accessory pathways: results from the magnetic laboratory. Chun, J.K., Ernst, S., Matthews, S., Schmidt, B., Bansch, D., Boczor, S., Ujeyl, A., Antz, M., Ouyang, F., Kuck, K.H. Eur. Heart J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Three individual regulatory elements of the promoter positively activate the transcription of the murine gene encoding granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Asano, M., Nishizawa, M., Nagata, S. Gene (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Additional red blood cell alloantibodies after blood transfusions in a nonhematologic alloimmunized patient cohort: is it time to take precautionary measures? Schonewille, H., van de Watering, L.M., Brand, A. Transfusion (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Micronucleus assay in vivo provides significant prognostic information in human cervical carcinoma; the updated analysis. Widel, M., Kolosza, Z., Jedruś, S., Lukaszczyk, B., Raczek-Zwierzycka, K., Swierniak, A. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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