The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

GYPC  -  glycophorin C (Gerbich blood group)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CD236, CD236R, GE, GLPC, GPC, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of GYPC

  • We used naturally mutated red blood cells (RBCs) with primary genetic defects resulting in the absence of protein 4.1 (4.1[-] hereditary elliptocytosis) or glycophorin C (Leach elliptocytosis) [1].
  • Western blot analysis of GPC and GPD in two of these patients revealed that these mRNAs were mostly translated into the GPD molecule, suggesting that these glycoproteins might be differently processed in certain cases of erythroleukemia [2].
  • Interestingly, the same deletion which lead to the rare Ge-2,-3 genetic condition, occurred spontaneously and frequently in the cloned GPC gene during the propagation of the recombinant phages in Escherichia coli [3].
  • The guinea pig hepatoma (line-1) treated with anti-Forssman antibody (TA) and GPC sequentially released 86Rb, 14C from 14C aminoidobutyric acid and failed to exclude trypan blue [4].
  • HLA-A*0201 mice immunized with either GPC(42-50) or GPC(60-68) were protected against challenge with a recombinant vaccinia virus that expressed LASV GPC [5].

Psychiatry related information on GYPC

  • Brain extract studies demonstrated that PC and GPC were the main components responsible for the observed in vivo spectral changes after 16 and 60 weeks of alcohol consumption, respectively [6].
  • The homogeneous labeling requires prolonged reaction times and removal of excess marker prior to GPC analysis by a time-consuming precipitation-washing-redissolution sequence, which is not needed in the heterogeneous approach [7].
  • A multicentre, randomised, controlled study compared the efficacy of l-alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine (alpha GPC) and ST200 (acetyl-l-carnitine) among 126 patients with probable senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT) of mild to moderate degree [8].

High impact information on GYPC

  • Their levels correlate with extracellular NaCl concentration and, in the case of GPC, also with urea [9].
  • Sorbitol, inositol, GPC, and betaine are the predominant organic osmolytes in renal medullary cells [9].
  • EBA140 does not bind to GYPC in Ge-negative erythrocytes, nor can P. falciparum invade such cells using this invasion pathway [10].
  • Deletion of exon 3 in the glycophorin C gene (called GYPCDeltaex3 here) has been found in Melanesians; this alteration changes the serologic phenotype of the Gerbich (Ge) blood group system, resulting in Ge negativity [10].
  • The glycophorin C N-linked glycan is a critical component of the ligand for the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte receptor BAEBL [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of GYPC

  • In melanoma extracts, the phosphorylcholine (PC)/glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC): Ala, Glu: Ser, and lactate: Ala ratios were five-, three-, and two-fold higher, respectively, than normal skin and the Val: Leu/Ile ratio was two-thirds of normal skin [12].
  • Previous studies showed that human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells treated with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein-coupled (GPC) mitogen, simultaneously with epidermal growth factor (EGF), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) mitogen, exhibit markedly synergistic stimulation of mitogenesis [13].
  • The initial stages of degradation of the poly(PHB/PEG urethane)s were monitored by carrying out the degradation experiments at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C. The weight loss of the copolymer films was traced, and the degraded copolymer films were characterized by GPC, (1)H NMR, TGA, and SEM [14].
  • Corneas from failed grafts had lower alpha-GP, ethanolamine phosphate (EP), ethanolamine phosphate and choline phosphate (EP&CP), monoesters/Pi, ATP/Pi, and energy modulus, no detectable GPE and GPC, and higher Pi, phosphorylglycans (PG), PCr, ADP, diesters, PCr/Pi, and PCr/ATP than those with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy (p less than 0.05) [15].
  • A neutral polysaccharide was obtained by hot phenol-water extraction of biomass from Campylobacter jejuni 176.83 and subsequently separated from acid-liberated core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide by sequential GPC on Bio-Gel P6 and TSK-40 columns [16].

Biological context of GYPC


Anatomical context of GYPC


Associations of GYPC with chemical compounds

  • 1. Glycophorin C is retained by Triton shells prepared from normal membranes, whereas Triton shells prepared from protein 4.1-deficient membranes are totally devoid of this sialoglycoprotein [17].
  • The expected 412-bp fragment was generated, and sequencing of the amplified product showed a G-->T substitution at nucleotide 67 of the coding sequence, resulting in the substitution of alanine by serine at amino acid residue 23 of GPC and, presumably, residue 2 of GPD [23].
  • The fact that PIP2 depletion induced a decrease in band 4.1 binding to Leach vesicles shows that glycophorin C or D is not required for the formation of PIP2-sensitive band 4.1 binding sites, and may not be involved in PIP2-sensitive band 4.1 binding sites even when they are present [24].
  • However, a glycosylation-dependent monoclonal antibody (MR4-130) detected an epitope on GPC which appears to be erythroid specific, suggesting that lineage specificity of this glycoprotein is related to some carbohydrate structures [2].
  • Glycophorins C and D (GPC and GPD) are two erythrocyte glycoproteins which originate from the same gene but differ in their NH2-terminal residues [2].

Physical interactions of GYPC


Regulatory relationships of GYPC


Other interactions of GYPC

  • This finding suggests that protein 4.1 is necessary for association of glycophorin C with the membrane skeleton [17].
  • On a stoichiometric basis, the reduction in glycophorin C (about 80%) was concomitant to the lack of p55 in RBCs devoid of protein 4 [1].
  • Human erythrocyte transmembrane sialoglycoprotein, glycophorin C, plays a functionally important role in maintaining erythrocyte shape and regulating membrane material properties, possibly through its interaction with protein 4 [17].
  • The order of the above markers expressed in the cultured cells in the presence of EPO was GPC, Kell-related, GPA, band 3, Lu(b), and RhD, irrespective of the type of cytokine added [28].
  • Cleavage of glycophorin (GP) A, GPB, and GPC occurred at sites close to the membrane but could not be accomplished using purified GPA and purified toxins, demonstrating that cleavage was not an effect of a direct proteolytic action of the Loxosceles toxins on the glycophorins [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GYPC


  1. Evidence that red blood cell protein p55 may participate in the skeleton-membrane linkage that involves protein 4.1 and glycophorin C. Alloisio, N., Dalla Venezia, N., Rana, A., Andrabi, K., Texier, P., Gilsanz, F., Cartron, J.P., Delaunay, J., Chishti, A.H. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Early expression of glycophorin C during normal and leukemic human erythroid differentiation. Villeval, J.L., Le Van Kim, C., Bettaieb, A., Debili, N., Colin, Y., el Maliki, B., Blanchard, D., Vainchenker, W., Cartron, J.P. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Human erythrocyte glycophorin C. Gene structure and rearrangement in genetic variants. Colin, Y., Le Van Kim, C., Tsapis, A., Clerget, M., d'Auriol, L., London, J., Galibert, F., Cartron, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Lysis of tumor cells by antibody and complement. VII. Complement-dependent 86Rb release--a nonlethal event? Boyle, M.D., Ohanian, S.H., Borsos, T. J. Immunol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of protective Lassa virus epitopes that are restricted by HLA-A2. Botten, J., Alexander, J., Pasquetto, V., Sidney, J., Barrowman, P., Ting, J., Peters, B., Southwood, S., Stewart, B., Rodriguez-Carreno, M.P., Mothe, B., Whitton, J.L., Sette, A., Buchmeier, M.J. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Proton MR spectroscopic studies of chronic alcohol exposure on the rat brain. Lee, H., Holburn, G.H., Price, R.R. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. A novel method for the determination of carbonyl groups in cellulosics by fluorescence labeling. 1. Method development. Röhrling, J., Potthast, A., Rosenau, T., Lange, T., Ebner, G., Sixta, H., Kosma, P. Biomacromolecules (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Multicentre study of l-alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine vs ST200 among patients with probable senile dementia of Alzheimer's type. Parnetti, L., Abate, G., Bartorelli, L., Cucinotta, D., Cuzzupoli, M., Maggioni, M., Villardita, C., Senin, U. Drugs & aging. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Renal medullary organic osmolytes. Garcia-Perez, A., Burg, M.B. Physiol. Rev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion through glycophorin C and selection for Gerbich negativity in human populations. Maier, A.G., Duraisingh, M.T., Reeder, J.C., Patel, S.S., Kazura, J.W., Zimmerman, P.A., Cowman, A.F. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The glycophorin C N-linked glycan is a critical component of the ligand for the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte receptor BAEBL. Mayer, D.C., Jiang, L., Achur, R.N., Kakizaki, I., Gowda, D.C., Miller, L.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. 1H NMR spectroscopy: an approach to evaluation of diseased skin in vivo. Kim, Y.H., Orenberg, E.K., Faull, K.F., Wade-Jardetzky, N.G., Jardetzky, O. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Synergistic stimulation of airway smooth muscle cell mitogenesis. Ediger, T.L., Toews, M.L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. The in vitro hydrolysis of poly(ester urethane)s consisting of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] and poly(ethylene glycol). Loh, X.J., Tan, K.K., Li, X., Li, J. Biomaterials (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Phosphatic metabolism and corneal edema. Lass, J.H., Greiner, J.V., Reinhart, W.J., Medcalf, S.K., Glonek, T. Cornea (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Chemical structure of a polysaccharide from Campylobacter jejuni 176.83 (serotype O:41) containing only furanose sugars. Hanniffy, O.M., Shashkov, A.S., Moran, A.P., Prendergast, M.M., Senchenkova, S.N., Knirel, Y.A., Savage, A.V. Carbohydr. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Glycophorin C content of human erythrocyte membrane is regulated by protein 4.1. Reid, M.E., Takakuwa, Y., Conboy, J., Tchernia, G., Mohandas, N. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of the membrane attachment sites for protein 4.1 in the human erythrocyte. Hemming, N.J., Anstee, D.J., Staricoff, M.A., Tanner, M.J., Mohandas, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. N-terminal amino acid sequence of sialoglycoprotein D (glycophorin C) from human erythrocyte membranes. Dahr, W., Beyreuther, K., Kordowicz, M., Krüger, J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Human erythrocyte glycophorins: protein and gene structure analyses. Cartron, J.P., Rahuel, C. Transfusion medicine reviews. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Glycophorin C (Gerbich antigen blood group) and band 3 polymorphisms in two malaria holoendemic regions of Papua New Guinea. Patel, S.S., King, C.L., Mgone, C.S., Kazura, J.W., Zimmerman, P.A. Am. J. Hematol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. The effects of glycophorin A on the expression of the human red cell anion transporter (band 3) in Xenopus oocytes. Groves, J.D., Tanner, M.J. J. Membr. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. A point mutation in the GYPC gene results in the expression of the blood group Ana antigen on glycophorin D but not on glycophorin C: further evidence that glycophorin D is a product of the GYPC gene. Daniels, G., King, M.J., Avent, N.D., Khalid, G., Reid, M., Mallinson, G., Symthe, J., Cedergren, B. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Absence of high-affinity band 4.1 binding sites from membranes of glycophorin C- and D-deficient (Leach phenotype) erythrocytes. Gascard, P., Cohen, C.M. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. In vitro binding studies suggest a membrane-associated complex between erythroid p55, protein 4.1, and glycophorin C. Marfatia, S.M., Lue, R.A., Branton, D., Chishti, A.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Protein architecture of the erythrocyte membrane. Morrison, M., Mueller, T.J., Edwards, H.H. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Bone marrow features and clinical findings in chronic myeloid leukemia--a comparative, multicenter, immunohistological and morphometric study on 614 patients. Thiele, J., Kvasnicka, H.M., Schmitt-Graeff, A., Zirbes, T.K., Birnbaum, F., Kressmann, C., Melguizo-Grahmann, M., Frackenpohl, H., Sprungmann, C., Leder, L.D., Diehl, V., Zankovich, R., Schaefer, H.E., Niederle, N., Fischer, R. Leuk. Lymphoma (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Ultrastructural and phenotypic analysis of in vitro erythropoiesis from human cord blood CD34+ cells. Kie, J.H., Jung, Y.J., Woo, S.Y., Ryu, K.H., Park, H.Y., Chung, W.S., Seoh, J.Y. Ann. Hematol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Loxosceles intermedia spider envenomation induces activation of an endogenous metalloproteinase, resulting in cleavage of glycophorins from the erythrocyte surface and facilitating complement-mediated lysis. Tambourgi, D.V., Morgan, B.P., de Andrade, R.M., Magnoli, F.C., van Den Berg, C.W. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Rearrangements of the red-cell membrane glycophorin C (sialoglycoprotein beta) gene. A further study of alterations in the glycophorin C gene. High, S., Tanner, M.J., Macdonald, E.B., Anstee, D.J. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Localization of the gene for human erythrocyte glycophorin C to chromosome 2, q14-q21. Mattei, M.G., Colin, Y., Le Van Kim, C., Mattei, J.F., Cartron, J.P. Hum. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Alteration of the genes for glycophorin A and B in glycophorin-A-deficient individuals. Rahuel, C., London, J., Vignal, A., Cherif-Zahar, B., Colin, Y., Siebert, P., Fukuda, M., Cartron, J.P. Eur. J. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities