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Gene Review

ARCN1  -  archain 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Archain, COPD, Coatomer subunit delta, Delta-COP, Delta-coat protein
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Disease relevance of ARCN1

  • METHODS: Expression and function of C/EBPalpha, beta, delta, and epsilon BSMCs of control subjects (n = 9), asthmatic patients (n = 12), and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 10) were determined [1].
  • Measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels facilitates the diagnosis of acute dyspnea in patients known to have both COPD and chronic heart failure [2].
  • PURPOSES: To describe the 30-year cumulative incidence of chronic bronchitis and COPD in relation to smoking habits [3].
  • We sought to determine whether HIV infection is associated with increased prevalence of COPD in the era of HAART [4].
  • The PAR associated with CHF alone (4.29%, 95% CI=3.68-4.94%) was similar to the PAR for CHF in combination with diabetes mellitus (3.08, 95% CI=2.60-3.61%) or COPD (3.93, 95% CI=3.41-4.54%) [5].

Psychiatry related information on ARCN1

  • After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, pack-years of smoking, IDU, and alcohol abuse, HIV infection was an independent risk factor for COPD [4].
  • Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that depressive symptoms were associated with female gender (odds 1.68, 95% CI 1.14-2.48), COPD (odds 2.11, 95% CI 1.35-3.30), sleep disturbance (odds 3.45, 95% CI 2.03-5.85) and loss of appetite (odds 2.61, 95% CI 1.58-4.33) [6].
  • Smoking cessation seems the best therapy for COPD patients [7].
  • Patients with overlap syndrome are characterized by having lower PaO2 during wakefulness, higher PaCO2, elevated pulmonary artery pressure and more significant episodes of nocturnal hypoxemia than sleep apnea patients without COPD [8].

High impact information on ARCN1

  • The role of PDE4 inhibitors in modulating cytokines, lipid mediators and in mucociliary clearance, along with clinical efficacy in asthma and/or COPD demonstrated with roflumilast and cilomilast, suggest a broad anti-inflammatory spectrum for these compounds [9].
  • In the context that COPD starts in the small airways, these gene expression changes in the small airway epithelium in phenotypically normal smokers are candidates for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent the onset of COPD [10].
  • A novel human gene, ARCN1, has been identified in chromosome band 11q23 [11].
  • 3. It maps approximately 50 kb telomeric to MLL, a gene that is disrupted in a number of leukemia-associated translocation chromosomes. cDNA clones representing ARCN1 hybridize to 4-kb mRNA species present in all tissues tested [11].
  • We investigated whether uneven ventilation and airway closure are associated with specific markers of airway inflammation as obtained by bronchial biopsies, BAL, and induced sputum in patients with manifest COPD [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of ARCN1

  • In 9 patients with COPD (mean (range) FEV, 55 (30-78) %predicted) and 8 smokers with normal lung function (FEV1 101 (89-117) %predicted), who underwent surgery for lung cancer, responses to inhaled histamine and salbutamol were assessed before surgery [13].
  • The target diseases were asthma and COPD including chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema, which are indications for use of sustained-release theophylline products in Japan. Results: 3,921 patients were included in the safety evaluation [14].

Biological context of ARCN1

  • RESULTS: In healthy volunteers, Dlco/VA shows a slight upward slope during exhalation, while in COPD patients Dlco/VA shows a horizontal line [15].
  • Epidemiology and costs of COPD [16].
  • Total-breath total lung capacity (TLC) is larger than single-breath TLC both in healthy volunteers and in COPD patients, leading to a Dlco(TB) that is significantly larger than Dlco(SB) in both groups (p < 0.001) [15].
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE: Our study investigates nutritional status, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical performance in elderly patients with stable COPD to identify any early conditions of hypermetabolism, malnutrition and sarcopenia [17].
  • Modern Internet technology and telemedicine may be new ways to proceed in improving health care for patients with asthma and COPD [18].

Anatomical context of ARCN1

  • Seven clones were found to be underexpressed; three of the clones showed significant similarity with sequences of the human genes encoding RNase L inhibitor, human tissue factor and ARCN1 (archain vesicle transport protein 1), a highly conserved species which is related to vesicle structure and trafficking proteins [19].
  • Patients with COPD or chronic heart failure have skeletal muscle abnormalities that limit functional capacity independently from primary organ failure [2].
  • To breathe or not to breathe: the respiratory muscles and COPD [20].
  • The respiratory zone and chest wall were described by a Voigt body and a constant elastance, respectively.Simulation results allowed us to investigate the influence of the main mechanisms involved in expiratory flow limitation and dynamic hyperinflation in mechanically ventilated COPD patients [21].
  • The neutrophil related elastase activity showed similar effects after steroid treatment, it went up from 36.4 +/-12.0 to 113.5 +/-9.7 nmol/l in smokers, and decreased from 346.2 +/-72.1 to 131.1 +/-6.5 nmol/l in ex-smokers with COPD [7].

Associations of ARCN1 with chemical compounds

  • A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Examining the Short-term Benefit of Ambulatory Oxygen in COPD [22].
  • In the multivariable model for exacerbation, older age, percentage of predicted FEV(1), duration of COPD, a productive cough, antibiotic or systemic corticosteroid use for COPD in the prior year, hospitalization for COPD in the prior year, and theophylline use at baseline predicted a higher risk [23].
  • In the multivariable model for hospitalization, older age, percentage of predicted FEV(1), unscheduled clinic/emergency department visits for COPD in the prior year, any cardiovascular comorbidity, and prednisone use at baseline were associated with greater risk [23].
  • While drug treatment per se did not change Q(aw) significantly, it restored albuterol responsiveness (+67.6+/-11.1%; p<0.05) in the ex-smokers with COPD [24].
  • Independent predictors were the same for the AIS-6 and AQLQ and included oral steroid use, COPD history, BMI, female sex, educational level, and hospitalization in the past year [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ARCN1

  • Protein analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed the disease-specific expression pattern of C/EBPalpha in asthmatic patients and C/EBPdelta in patients with COPD [1].
  • Explanted lungs from patients who were undergoing lung transplantation for advanced COPD, and donor lungs that were not used for transplantation were imaged via (3)He diffusion MRI [26].
  • METHODS: A total of 208 consecutive patients requiring hospitalization for COPD exacerbation were randomized at the index exacerbation to procalcitonin-guided or standard antibiotic therapy [27].
  • RESULTS: For 1,258 participants with good-quality postbronchodilator spirometry findings, the overall prevalence of COPD at stage I or higher was 26.1%, and was equal in men and women [28].
  • Economic Benefits of Self-Management Education in COPD [29].


  1. Disease-specific expression and regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Borger, P., Matsumoto, H., Boustany, S., Gencay, M.M., Burgess, J.K., King, G.G., Black, J.L., Tamm, M., Roth, M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Diagnostic Usefulness of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Functional Consequences of Muscle Alterations in COPD and Chronic Heart Failure. Jelic, S., Le Jemtel, T.H. Chest (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Thirty-Year Cumulative Incidence of Chronic Bronchitis and COPD in Relation to 30-Year Pulmonary Function and 40-Year Mortality: A Follow-up in Middle-Aged Rural Men. Pelkonen, M., Notkola, I.L., Nissinen, A., Tukiainen, H., Koskela, H. Chest (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased COPD Among HIV-Positive Compared to HIV-Negative Veterans. Crothers, K., Butt, A.A., Gibert, C.L., Rodriguez-Barradas, M.C., Crystal, S., Justice, A.C. Chest (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Multimorbidity and survival in older persons with colorectal cancer. Gross, C.P., Guo, Z., McAvay, G.J., Allore, H.G., Young, M., Tinetti, M.E. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Depressive symptoms are prominent among elderly hospitalised heart failure patients. Lesman-Leegte, I., Jaarsma, T., Sanderman, R., Linssen, G., van Veldhuisen, D.J. Eur. J. Heart Fail. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Differences in responses upon corticosteroid therapy between smoking and non-smoking patients with COPD. Van Overveld, F.J., Demkow, U., G??recka, D., De Backer, W.A., Zieli??ski, J. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Sleep in COPD patients. Bhullar, S., Phillips, B. COPD (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Asthma and COPD. Huang, Z., Mancini, J.A. Current medicinal chemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Modification of gene expression of the small airway epithelium in response to cigarette smoking. Harvey, B.G., Heguy, A., Leopold, P.L., Carolan, B.J., Ferris, B., Crystal, R.G. J. Mol. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. The human archain gene, ARCN1, has highly conserved homologs in rice and Drosophila. Radice, P., Pensotti, V., Jones, C., Perry, H., Pierotti, M.A., Tunnacliffe, A. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Small Airways Dysfunction and Neutrophilic Inflammation in Bronchial Biopsies and BAL in COPD. Lapperre, T.S., Willems, L.N., Timens, W., Rabe, K.F., Hiemstra, P.S., Postma, D.S., Sterk, P.J. Chest (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolated bronchi of patients with COPD show decreased histamine responsiveness compared to smokers with normal lung function. Taube, C., Einhaus, M., Welker, L., Holz, O., Branscheid, D., Magnussen, H., J??rres, R.A. COPD (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. A Prospective Survey on Safety of Sustained-Release Theophylline in Treatment of Asthma and COPD. Makino, S., Adachi, M., Ohta, K., Kihara, N., Nakajima, S., Nishima, S., Fukuda, T., Miyamoto, T. Allergology international : official journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparison of Total-Breath and Single-Breath Diffusing Capacity in Healthy Volunteers and COPD Patients. Horstman, M.J., Mertens, F.W., Schotborg, D., Hoogsteden, H.C., Stam, H. Chest (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Epidemiology and costs of COPD. Blanc, P.D., Balmes, J.R. Eur. Respir. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Body composition and resting energy expenditure in elderly male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sergi, G., Coin, A., Marin, S., Vianello, A., Manzan, A., Peruzza, S., Inelmen, E.M., Busetto, L., Mulone, S., Enzi, G. Respiratory medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Nordic physicians' management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Omenaas, E., Dahl, R., Bakke, P.S., Lehmann, S. Respiratory medicine (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Differential expression of mRNA in human thyroid cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA by ethidium bromide treatment. Thomas, A.W., Majid, A., Sherratt, E.J., Gagg, J.W., Alcolado, J.C. Clin. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. To breathe or not to breathe: the respiratory muscles and COPD. McKenzie, D. J. Appl. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. A Simulation Study of Expiratory Flow Limitation in Obstructive Patients during Mechanical Ventilation. Barbini, P., Brighenti, C., Gnudi, G. Annals of biomedical engineering (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Examining the Short-term Benefit of Ambulatory Oxygen in COPD. Bradley, J.M., Lasserson, T., Elborn, S., Macmahon, J., O'neill, B. Chest (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Risk Indexes for Exacerbations and Hospitalizations Due to COPD. Niewoehner, D.E., Lokhnygina, Y., Rice, K., Kuschner, W.G., Sharafkhaneh, A., Sarosi, G.A., Krumpe, P., Pieper, K., Kesten, S. Chest (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Airway blood flow reactivity in smokers. Wanner, A., Campos, M.A., Mendes, E. Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Validation of the asthma impact survey, a brief asthma-specific quality of life tool. Schatz, M., Mosen, D., Kosinski, M., Vollmer, W.M., O'connor, E., Cook, E.F., Zeiger, R.S. Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Hyperpolarized (3)He diffusion MRI and histology in pulmonary emphysema. Woods, J.C., Choong, C.K., Yablonskiy, D.A., Bentley, J., Wong, J., Pierce, J.A., Cooper, J.D., Macklem, P.T., Conradi, M.S., Hogg, J.C. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Antibiotic Treatment of Exacerbations of COPD: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing Procalcitonin-Guidance With Standard Therapy. Stolz, D., Christ-Crain, M., Bingisser, R., Leuppi, J., Miedinger, D., M??ller, C., Huber, P., M??ller, B., Tamm, M. Chest (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. COPD Prevalence in Salzburg, Austria: Results From the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) Study. Schirnhofer, L., Lamprecht, B., Vollmer, W.M., Allison, M.J., Studnicka, M., Jensen, R.L., Buist, A.S. Chest (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Economic Benefits of Self-Management Education in COPD. Bourbeau, J., Collet, J.P., Schwartzman, K., Ducruet, T., Nault, D., Bradley, C. Chest (2006) [Pubmed]
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