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Gene Review

KRT12  -  keratin 12, type I

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CK-12, Cytokeratin-12, K12, Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 12, Keratin-12
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Disease relevance of KRT12


High impact information on KRT12


Chemical compound and disease context of KRT12


Biological context of KRT12


Anatomical context of KRT12

  • Real-time PCR analysis showed that the transcription level of K3 and K12 in cultured cells was lower than in freshly isolated limbal cells or cells from central cornea (P <0.01) [17].
  • Epithelial cell outgrowth on iAM expressed more p63 but less K3 and K12 than did that on dAM [18].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The resultant epithelial phenotype of the pannus tissue was not corneal, as evidenced by the negative staining to cornea-specific K12 mRNA and protein, but was conjunctival, as evidenced by the presence of goblet cells, the weak expression of K3, and the strong expression of K19 [19].
  • Here, we report that the deletion of K5, which in wild-type mice forms a cytoskeleton with K12, does neither cause keratin aggregation nor cytolysis in the cornea [20].
  • Immunohistochemical study demonstrated that K3, but not K12, was expressed in the transplanted cultivated oral mucosal epithelium that was similar to oral mucosal tissue [21].

Associations of KRT12 with chemical compounds

  • Another novel heterozygous missense mutation (1286A-->G), predicting the substitution of a cysteine for a tyrosine at codon 429 (Y429C) was detected in the helix termination motif of the keratin 12 polypeptide in family 2 [15].
  • A novel arginine substitution mutation in 1A domain and a novel 27 bp insertion mutation in 2B domain of keratin 12 gene associated with Meesmann's corneal dystrophy [22].
  • RESULTS: Sequencing of the K12 gene in an affected individual from the family revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (413A-->C), predicting the substitution of a proline for a glutamine at codon 130 (Q130P) in the HIM of the K12 protein [23].
  • After coculture, these cells expressed K3/K12 (a marker of corneal epithelial cells), K15 and beta1 integrin, but no K1/K10 [24].
  • The data also provide the thermodynamic driving force for a 1,2-hydrogen shift at a singlet carbene: K12 = 5 x 10(16) for rearrangement of the parent imidazol-2-yl carbene to give neutral imidazole in water at 298 K, which corresponds to a favorable Gibbs free energy change of 23 kcal/mol [25].

Other interactions of KRT12


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of KRT12


  1. Proteome profiling of corneal epithelium and identification of marker proteins for keratoconus, a pilot study. Nielsen, K., Vorum, H., Fagerholm, P., Birkenkamp-Demtröder, K., Honoré, B., Ehlers, N., Orntoft, T.F. Exp. Eye Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Protective efficacy of oral whole-cell/recombinant-B-subunit cholera vaccine in Peruvian military recruits. Sanchez, J.L., Vasquez, B., Begue, R.E., Meza, R., Castellares, G., Cabezas, C., Watts, D.M., Svennerholm, A.M., Sadoff, J.C., Taylor, D.N. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Functional gene transfer from intracellular bacteria to mammalian cells. Grillot-Courvalin, C., Goussard, S., Huetz, F., Ojcius, D.M., Courvalin, P. Nat. Biotechnol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of legiolysin (lly), responsible for haemolytic activity, colour production and fluorescence of Legionella pneumophila. Wintermeyer, E., Rdest, U., Ludwig, B., Debes, A., Hacker, J. Mol. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Open reading frame 50 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus directly activates the viral PAN and K12 genes by binding to related response elements. Chang, P.J., Shedd, D., Gradoville, L., Cho, M.S., Chen, L.W., Chang, J., Miller, G. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Mutations in cornea-specific keratin K3 or K12 genes cause Meesmann's corneal dystrophy. Irvine, A.D., Corden, L.D., Swensson, O., Swensson, B., Moore, J.E., Frazer, D.G., Smith, F.J., Knowlton, R.G., Christophers, E., Rochels, R., Uitto, J., McLean, W.H. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Coupling of histone and DNA synthesis in the somatic cell cycle. Delegeane, A.M., Lee, A.S. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and chromosomal localization of a cornea-specific human keratin 12 gene and detection of four mutations in Meesmann corneal epithelial dystrophy. Nishida, K., Honma, Y., Dota, A., Kawasaki, S., Adachi, W., Nakamura, T., Quantock, A.J., Hosotani, H., Yamamoto, S., Okada, M., Shimomura, Y., Kinoshita, S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate. Use of chorismate mutase inhibitors to define the transition state structure. Andrews, P.R., Cain, E.N., Rizzardo, E., Smith, G.D. Biochemistry (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Differentiated U937 cells exhibit increased bactericidal activity upon LPS activation and discriminate between virulent and avirulent Listeria and Brucella species. Caron, E., Liautard, J.P., Köhler, S. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Low T Cell Responses to Human Herpesvirus 8 in Patients with AIDS-Related and Classic Kaposi Sarcoma. Guihot, A., Dupin, N., Marcelin, A.G., Gorin, I., Bedin, A.S., Bossi, P., Galicier, L., Oksenhendler, E., Autran, B., Carcelain, G. J. Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. The argRB of Escherichia coli is rare in isolates obtained from natural sources. Merlo, L.M., Sadowsky, M.J., Ferguson, J.A., Dean, A.M. Gene (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Nucleotide sequence of the hemB gene of Escherichia coli K12. Echelard, Y., Dymetryszyn, J., Drolet, M., Sasarman, A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. A novel mutation in KRT12 associated with Meesmann's epithelial corneal dystrophy. Irvine, A.D., Coleman, C.M., Moore, J.E., Swensson, O., Morgan, S.J., McCarthy, J.H., Smith, F.J., Black, G.C., McLean, W.H. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Novel mutations in the helix termination motif of keratin 3 and keratin 12 in 2 Taiwanese families with Meesmann corneal dystrophy. Chen, Y.T., Tseng, S.H., Chao, S.C. Cornea (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. A gene expression profile of human corneal epithelium and the isolation of human keratin 12 cDNA. Nishida, K., Adachi, W., Shimizu-Matsumoto, A., Kinoshita, S., Mizuno, K., Matsubara, K., Okubo, K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Human limbal progenitor cell characteristics are maintained in tissue culture. Liu, S., Li, J., Wang, C., Tan, D., Beuerman, R. Ann. Acad. Med. Singap. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Basement membrane dissolution and reassembly by limbal corneal epithelial cells expanded on amniotic membrane. Li, W., He, H., Kuo, C.L., Gao, Y., Kawakita, T., Tseng, S.C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of corneal pannus removed from patients with total limbal stem cell deficiency. Espana, E.M., Di Pascuale, M.A., He, H., Kawakita, T., Raju, V.K., Liu, C.Y., Tseng, S.C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Keratin 5 knockout mice reveal plasticity of keratin expression in the corneal epithelium. Lu, H., Zimek, A., Chen, J., Hesse, M., Büssow, H., Weber, K., Magin, T.M. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Ocular surface reconstruction with combination of cultivated autologous oral mucosal epithelial transplantation and penetrating keratoplasty. Inatomi, T., Nakamura, T., Kojyo, M., Koizumi, N., Sotozono, C., Kinoshita, S. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. A novel arginine substitution mutation in 1A domain and a novel 27 bp insertion mutation in 2B domain of keratin 12 gene associated with Meesmann's corneal dystrophy. Yoon, M.K., Warren, J.F., Holsclaw, D.S., Gritz, D.C., Margolis, T.P. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. A novel keratin 12 mutation in a German kindred with Meesmann's corneal dystrophy. Corden, L.D., Swensson, O., Swensson, B., Rochels, R., Wannke, B., Thiel, H.J., McLean, W.H. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Putative epidermal stem cell convert into corneal epithelium-like cell under corneal tissue in vitro. Gao, N., Wang, Z., Huang, B., Ge, J., Lu, R., Zhang, K., Fan, Z., Lu, L., Peng, Z., Cui, G. Sci. China, C, Life Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Formation and stability of N-heterocyclic carbenes in water: the carbon acid pKa of imidazolium cations in aqueous solution. Amyes, T.L., Diver, S.T., Richard, J.P., Rivas, F.M., Toth, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Delayed wound closure and phenotypic changes in corneal epithelium of the spontaneously diabetic goto-kakizaki rat. Wakuta, M., Morishige, N., Chikama, T., Seki, K., Nagano, T., Nishida, T. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Development of immortalized rat conjunctival epithelial cell lines: An in vitro model to examine transepithelial antigen delivery. O'sullivan, N.L., Baylor, A.E., Montgomery, P.C. Exp. Eye Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Construction of a complete rabbit cornea substitute using a fibrin-agarose scaffold. Alaminos, M., Del Carmen Sánchez-Quevedo, M., Muñoz-Avila, J.I., Serrano, D., Medialdea, S., Carreras, I., Campos, A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. RCE1 Corneal Epithelial Cell Line: Its Variability on Phenotype Expression and Differential Response to Growth Factors. Tamariz, E., Hernandez-Quintero, M., Sánchez-Guzman, E., Arguello, C., Castro-Muñozledo, F. Arch. Med. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  30. Immunochemical characterization and purification of Treponema pallidum antigen TpD expressed by Escherichia coli K12. Hindersson, P., Cockayne, A., Schouls, L.M., van Emden, J.D. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Cytokeratin 12 in human ocular surface epithelia is the antigen reactive with a commercial anti-Galpha q antibody. Boehlke, C.S., Yuan, C., Kao, W.W., Huang, A.J. Mol. Vis. (2004) [Pubmed]
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