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Gene Review

VEGFA  -  vascular endothelial growth factor A

Canis lupus familiaris

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Disease relevance of VEGFA

  • VEGF and KDR were found to be detected on the epithelial, and/or endothelial and/or stromal cells of the carcinomas in both species, suggesting indications for some possible autocrine and paracrine loops [1].
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and its receptor KDR are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis and are up-regulated in a number of tumours in humans and in particular, breast cancer [1].
  • Second, despite a lack of quantitative changes in organelle number, endothelial-specific expression of Cav-1 impairs endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation, endothelial barrier function, and angiogenic responses to exogenous VEGF and tissue ischemia [2].
  • To test this hypothesis we measured capillary density, and the expressions of VEGF, Ang-1, Ang-2, and the Tie-2 receptor and its phosphorylation state during repetitive episodes of myocardial ischemia in chronically instrumented canines [3].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed VEGF protein within ECs and smooth muscle cells of the venous bypass graft, with maximal levels observed within intimal hyperplasia at the arterial anastomosis [4].

Psychiatry related information on VEGFA

  • Therefore, the results provide a theoretical basis for speculating that the cardiovascular-protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption may be partly mediated through VEGF-induced angiogenesis [5].

High impact information on VEGFA


Chemical compound and disease context of VEGFA


Biological context of VEGFA


Anatomical context of VEGFA

  • The VEGF system expression could be detected in all diestrus stages in endothelial as well as luteal cells (responsible for blood vessel formation and progesterone production, respectively), indicating time dependent changes: immunostaining tended to increase from Day 10 to 50 and to decrease until Day 70 post-ovulation [13].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the effect of VEGF on collateral blood flow in dogs subjected to gradual occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) [7].
  • In this study, we tested whether vascular smooth muscles cells (VSMCs) can express VEGF receptors, such as flk-1, flt-1, and neuropilin (NP)-1, and respond to VEGF in vitro [16].
  • CONCLUSION: Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer is capable of inducing sustained VEGF165 expression in the pericardium; however, locally targeted pericardial VEGF delivery failed to improve myocardial collateral perfusion in this model [15].
  • Both VEGF and Ang-2 expression in myocardial interstitial fluid (Western analyses) peaked at day 3 of the repetitive occlusions but waned thereafter [3].

Associations of VEGFA with chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that FG with VEGF at 1000 ng/mL and heparin at 5 U/mL is the optimal concentration for in vivo use because this may encourage EC, but not SMC, proliferation [17].
  • Proliferation assays measuring tritiated thymidine incorporation were performed for ECs and SMCs plated in media with 10% serum on FG containing various concentrations of VEGF and heparin [17].
  • METHODS: Release of VEGF labeled with iodine 125 and tritiated heparin from FG into the overlying media was serially measured over 96 hours, and the data are reported as the mean percent released +/- SD [17].
  • Significant accumulation of VEGF mRNA occurred at the flexor tendon repair site at 7 days post-operatively, with peak levels seen at post-operative days 7 and 10 [18].
  • We conclude that moderate levels of ethanol can induce VEGF expression and stimulate angiogenesis in chick CAM [5].

Other interactions of VEGFA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VEGFA

  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: For plasma VEGF analysis a human VEGF enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used [12].
  • Modulations of VEGF and iNOS in the rat heart by low level laser therapy are associated with cardioprotection and enhanced angiogenesis [20].
  • It is therefore, suggested, to use plasma VEGF as predictor for treatment outcome in radiation therapy [12].
  • The present investigation had two aims: (1) to ascertain whether brief (7-day) systemic arterial treatment with bFGF or VEGF would improve myocardial collateral perfusion and (2) to determine whether these peptides induce neointimal accumulation in vivo [6].
  • Beginning 10 days after placement of an LCx-constricting device, VEGF 45 micrograms (n = 9) or saline (n = 12) was administered daily via an indwelling catheter in the distal LCx, at a point just beyond the occlusion [7].


  1. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor Flk-1/KDR in promoting tumour angiogenesis in feline and canine mammary carcinomas: A preliminary study of autocrine and paracrine loops. Millanta, F., Silvestri, G., Vaselli, C., Citi, S., Pisani, G., Lorenzi, D., Poli, A. Res. Vet. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Endothelial-specific expression of caveolin-1 impairs microvascular permeability and angiogenesis. Bauer, P.M., Yu, J., Chen, Y., Hickey, R., Bernatchez, P.N., Looft-Wilson, R., Huang, Y., Giordano, F., Stan, R.V., Sessa, W.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of VEGF and angiopoietins-1 and -2 during ischemia-induced coronary angiogenesis. Matsunaga, T., Warltier, D.C., Tessmer, J., Weihrauch, D., Simons, M., Chilian, W.M. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in canine peripheral vein bypass grafts. Hamdan, A.D., Aiello, L.P., Misare, B.D., Contreras, M.A., King, G.L., LoGerfo, F.W., Quist, W.C. J. Vasc. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Moderate levels of ethanol induce expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and stimulate angiogenesis. Gu, J.W., Elam, J., Sartin, A., Li, W., Roach, R., Adair, T.H. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparative effects of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor on coronary collateral development and the arterial response to injury. Lazarous, D.F., Shou, M., Scheinowitz, M., Hodge, E., Thirumurti, V., Kitsiou, A.N., Stiber, J.A., Lobo, A.D., Hunsberger, S., Guetta, E., Epstein, S.E., Unger, E.F. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Angiogenic-induced enhancement of collateral blood flow to ischemic myocardium by vascular endothelial growth factor in dogs. Banai, S., Jaklitsch, M.T., Shou, M., Lazarous, D.F., Scheinowitz, M., Biro, S., Epstein, S.E., Unger, E.F. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of genes differentially expressed in canine vasospastic cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Onda, H., Kasuya, H., Takakura, K., Hori, T., Imaizumi, T., Takeuchi, T., Inoue, I., Takeda, J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Adenosine upregulates VEGF expression in cultured myocardial vascular smooth muscle cells. Gu, J.W., Brady, A.L., Anand, V., Moore, M.C., Kelly, W.C., Adair, T.H. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Direct in vivo gene transfer to canine myocardium using a replication-deficient adenovirus vector. Magovern, C.J., Mack, C.A., Zhang, J., Hahn, R.T., Ko, W., Isom, O.W., Crystal, R.G., Rosengart, T.K. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Localization of integrin alpha(v)beta3 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (KDR/Flk-1) in cutaneous and oral melanomas of dog. Rawlings, N.G., Simko, E., Bebchuk, T., Caldwell, S.J., Singh, B. Histol. Histopathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. The influence of fractionated radiation therapy on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in dogs with spontaneous tumors and its impact on outcome. Wergin, M.C., Roos, M., Inteeworn, N., Laluhovà, D., Allemann, K., Kaser-Hotz, B. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunohistochemical localization of VEGF and its receptors in the corpus luteum of the bitch during diestrus and anestrus. Mariani, T.C., Prado, C., Silva, L.G., Paarmann, F.A., Lima, M.C., Carvalho, I., Campos, D.B., Artoni, L.P., Hernandez-Blazquez, F.J., Papa, P.C. Theriogenology (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in healthy dogs, dogs with selected neoplasia, and dogs with nonneoplastic diseases. Troy, G.C., Huckle, W.R., Rossmeisl, J.H., Panciera, D., Lanz, O., Robertson, J.L., Ward, D.L. J. Vet. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer induces sustained pericardial VEGF expression in dogs: effect on myocardial angiogenesis. Lazarous, D.F., Shou, M., Stiber, J.A., Hodge, E., Thirumurti, V., Gonçalves, L., Unger, E.F. Cardiovasc. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in smooth muscle cells. Ishida, A., Murray, J., Saito, Y., Kanthou, C., Benzakour, O., Shibuya, M., Wijelath, E.S. J. Cell. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Mitogenicity and release of vascular endothelial growth factor with and without heparin from fibrin glue. Shireman, P.K., Greisler, H.P. J. Vasc. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Quantitative variation in vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression during early flexor tendon healing: an investigation in a canine model. Boyer, M.I., Watson, J.T., Lou, J., Manske, P.R., Gelberman, R.H., Cai, S.R. J. Orthop. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances the expression of receptors and activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase of dog retinal capillary endothelial cells. Murata, M., Kador, P.F., Sato, S. Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Modulations of VEGF and iNOS in the rat heart by low level laser therapy are associated with cardioprotection and enhanced angiogenesis. Tuby, H., Maltz, L., Oron, U. Lasers in surgery and medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
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