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Gene Review

NR3C2  -  nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C,...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: MCR, MLR, MR, Mineralocorticoid receptor, NR3C2VIT, ...
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Disease relevance of NR3C2


Psychiatry related information on NR3C2


High impact information on NR3C2


Chemical compound and disease context of NR3C2


Biological context of NR3C2


Anatomical context of NR3C2

  • Using the MR-specific H10E anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody, immunoprecipitation of cytosol from recombinant baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells pulse-labeled with 32Pi demonstrated for the first time that the recombinant hMR is highly phosphorylated [1].
  • In human kidney, colon, and salivary gland, 11 beta HSD2 protects the MR from glucocorticoid excess in an autocrine fashion [18].
  • Immunoperoxidase studies on the mineralocorticoid target tissues, kidney, colon, and parotid gland indicated positive staining in epithelial cells known to express the MR: respectively, renal collecting ducts, surface and crypt colonic epithelial cells, and parotid duct epithelial cells [18].
  • MR mRNA abundance in fetal hearts was found to be similar to that in adult kidney and hippocampus [19].
  • In the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Brodmann's area 9 (BA 9), MR mRNA was significantly lower (p<0.05) in all laminae (I-VI) in BP, and in laminae I, III, IV and VI in SZ than in the controls [6].

Associations of NR3C2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of NR3C2


Enzymatic interactions of NR3C2


Co-localisations of NR3C2


Regulatory relationships of NR3C2


Other interactions of NR3C2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NR3C2

  • Finally, indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that the hMR is expressed primarily as a cytoplasmic protein that can be induced to translocate to the nucleus upon treatment with hormone [1].
  • Protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 interacts with the N-terminal domain of mineralocorticoid receptor and represses its transcriptional activity: implication of small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 modification [3].
  • The MR mRNA expression in the post-mortem prefrontal cortex of patients with major depression (MD), bipolar (BP), and schizophrenic (SZ) disorders and non-psychiatric controls (n=15 for each patient group, and n=14 for controls) was determined by in-situ hybridization [6].
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis demonstrated that DNA binding of MR occurred only after treatment with aldosterone [22].
  • We have identified a new human MR isoform, hMRDelta5,6, resulting from an alternative splicing event skipping exons 5 and 6 of the human MR gene. hMRDelta5,6 mRNAs are expressed in several human tissues at different levels compared with wild-type human MR, as shown by real time PCR [33].


  1. Overexpression and characterization of the human mineralocorticoid receptor. Alnemri, E.S., Maksymowych, A.B., Robertson, N.M., Litwack, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid inhibit 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and cause cortisol-induced transcriptional activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor. Stauffer, A.T., Rochat, M.K., Dick, B., Frey, F.J., Odermatt, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 interacts with the N-terminal domain of mineralocorticoid receptor and represses its transcriptional activity: implication of small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 modification. Tallec, L.P., Kirsh, O., Lecomte, M.C., Viengchareun, S., Zennaro, M.C., Dejean, A., Lombès, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. The myosin binding protein is a novel mineralocorticoid receptor binding partner. Bratton, M.R., Gomez-Sanchez, E.P., Gomez-Sanchez, C.E., Subauste, J.S. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II enzyme in breast tumors and modulation of activity and cell growth in PMC42 cells. Koyama, K., Myles, K., Smith, R., Krozowski, Z. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Decreased expression of mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Xing, G.Q., Russell, S., Webster, M.J., Post, R.M. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Corticosteroids in relation to fear, anxiety and psychopathology. Korte, S.M. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Glucocorticoid receptor gene expression is unaltered in hippocampal neurons in Alzheimer's disease. Seckl, J.R., French, K.L., O'Donnell, D., Meaney, M.J., Nair, N.P., Yates, C.M., Fink, G. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Gluco- and antimineralocorticoid effects on human sleep: a role of central corticosteroid receptors. Born, J., DeKloet, E.R., Wenz, H., Kern, W., Fehm, H.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutations in the mineralocorticoid receptor gene cause autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type I. Geller, D.S., Rodriguez-Soriano, J., Vallo Boado, A., Schifter, S., Bayer, M., Chang, S.S., Lifton, R.P. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Human hypertension caused by mutations in the kidney isozyme of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Mune, T., Rogerson, F.M., Nikkilä, H., Agarwal, A.K., White, P.C. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification of a new class of steroid hormone receptors. Giguère, V., Yang, N., Segui, P., Evans, R.M. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Two homozygous mutations in the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene in a case of apparent mineralocorticoid excess. Carvajal, C.A., Gonzalez, A.A., Romero, D.G., González, A., Mosso, L.M., Lagos, E.T., Hevia, M.d.e.l. .P., Rosati, M.P., Perez-Acle, T.O., Gomez-Sanchez, C.E., Montero, J.A., Fardella, C.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. The severe form of hypertension caused by the activating S810L mutation in the mineralocorticoid receptor is cortisone related. Rafestin-Oblin, M.E., Souque, A., Bocchi, B., Pinon, G., Fagart, J., Vandewalle, A. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Functional polymorphisms in the mineralocorticoid receptor and amirolide-sensitive sodium channel genes in a patient with sporadic pseudohypoaldosteronism. Arai, K., Nakagomi, Y., Iketani, M., Shimura, Y., Amemiya, S., Ohyama, K., Shibasaki, T. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential regulation of mouse mammary tumor virus-bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase chimeric gene by human mineralocorticoid hormone-receptor complexes. Govindan, M.V., Leclerc, S., Roy, R., Rathanaswami, P., Xie, B.X. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Structural and biochemical mechanisms for the specificity of hormone binding and coactivator assembly by mineralocorticoid receptor. Li, Y., Suino, K., Daugherty, J., Xu, H.E. Mol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunodetection of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human mineralocorticoid target tissues: evidence for nuclear localization. Shimojo, M., Ricketts, M.L., Petrelli, M.D., Moradi, P., Johnson, G.D., Bradwell, A.R., Hewison, M., Howie, A.J., Stewart, P.M. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Increased maternal cortisol in late-gestation ewes decreases fetal cardiac expression of 11beta-HSD2 mRNA and the ratio of AT1 to AT2 receptor mRNA. Reini, S.A., Wood, C.E., Jensen, E., Keller-Wood, M. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning of human mineralocorticoid receptor complementary DNA: structural and functional kinship with the glucocorticoid receptor. Arriza, J.L., Weinberger, C., Cerelli, G., Glaser, T.M., Handelin, B.L., Housman, D.E., Evans, R.M. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Specific activation of the glucocorticoid receptor and modulation of signal transduction pathways in human lens epithelial cells. Gupta, V., Awasthi, N., Wagner, B.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. The unliganded mineralocorticoid receptor is associated with heat shock proteins 70 and 90 and the immunophilin FKBP-52. Bruner, K.L., Derfoul, A., Robertson, N.M., Guerriero, G., Fernandes-Alnemri, T., Alnemri, E.S., Litwack, G. Receptors & signal transduction. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II in the human endometrium: localization and activity during the menstrual cycle. Smith, R.E., Salamonsen, L.A., Komesaroff, P.A., Li, K.X., Myles, K.M., Lawrence, M., Krozowski, Z. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. The human 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II enzyme: comparisons with other species and localization to the distal nephron. Krozowski, Z., Albiston, A.L., Obeyesekere, V.R., Andrews, R.K., Smith, R.E. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Determinants of spironolactone binding specificity in the mineralocorticoid receptor. Rogerson, F.M., Yao, Y.Z., Smith, B.J., Dimopoulos, N., Fuller, P.J. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Hypertension in the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess due to mutation of the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene. Stewart, P.M., Krozowski, Z.S., Gupta, A., Milford, D.V., Howie, A.J., Sheppard, M.C., Whorwood, C.B. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Immunohistochemical localization of the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II enzyme in human kidney and placenta. Krozowski, Z., MaGuire, J.A., Stein-Oakley, A.N., Dowling, J., Smith, R.E., Andrews, R.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Mineralocorticoid receptor is involved in the regulation of genes responsible for hepatic glucose production. Liu, G., Grifman, M., Keily, B., Chatterton, J.E., Staal, F.W., Li, Q.X. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Steroids and electrical activity in the brain. Joëls, M., Hesen, W., Karst, H., de Kloet, E.R. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Human kidney 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is a high affinity nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzyme and differs from the cloned type I isoform. Stewart, P.M., Murry, B.A., Mason, J.I. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. The manifold actions of the protein inhibitor of activated STAT proteins on the transcriptional activity of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors in neural cells. Tirard, M., Jasbinsek, J., Almeida, O.F., Michaelidis, T.M. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. The human progesterone receptor A-form functions as a transcriptional modulator of mineralocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity. McDonnell, D.P., Shahbaz, M.M., Vegeto, E., Goldman, M.E. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. A new human MR splice variant is a ligand-independent transactivator modulating corticosteroid action. Zennaro, M.C., Souque, A., Viengchareun, S., Poisson, E., Lombès, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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