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MeSH Review

Social Support

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Disease relevance of Social Support


Psychiatry related information on Social Support


High impact information on Social Support

  • Although smoking, poor sleep quality, alcohol abstinence, low dietary intake of vitamin C, elevated catecholamine levels, and being introverted were all associated with greater susceptibility to colds, they could only partially account for the relation between social network diversity and incidence of colds [11].
  • METHODS: A cohort of 238 consecutively enrolled RA patients from the European Research on Incapacitating Disease and Social Support study (age range 20-70 years, mean disease duration 2.3 years, 68% rheumatoid factor [RF] positive) was followed up longitudinally for 10 years [12].
  • METHODS: Women aged 40-60 years with established RA completed validated questionnaires on health status (Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2) and satisfaction with the levels of social support from their primary caregiver (Significant Others Scale A) [13].
  • Current psychiatric disorder was present in 15 patients (20.5%) and was significantly associated with social stress, lack of social support, and impairment on 2 tests of cognitive function (Verbal Fluency Test and Benton Visual Retention Test, Part A, number of errors) [14].
  • The authors predicted risk of major depression in the year before the wave 2 interview from levels of social support assessed at wave 1 [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Social Support

  • The present study examined the relationship between history of self-reported drug overdoses and social network characteristics among cocaine and opiate users [16].
  • Each group was asked to complete an instrument that assesses perceived social support (Headache Social Support Questionnaire), medication attitudes (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire), locus of control (Headache-Specific Locus of Control Scale), and migraine-associated disability (Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire) [17].
  • RESULTS: Pyridoxine deficiency was a significant predictor of increased overall psychological distress in this model, controlling for life stressors, social support, coping style, and HIV-1 serostatus [18].
  • Self-esteem, social adjustment, social support and attributional style were assessed in 27 recovered bipolar patients, 24 recovered unipolar patients maintained on lithium or antidepressant prophylaxis and 26 healthy controls [19].
  • These treatments include counseling (mainly individual or social support and behavioral and cognitive therapy) and pharmacological treatment with either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion LP [20].

Biological context of Social Support

  • We assessed 50 homosexual or bisexual men who were within 3 months of their AIDS diagnosis with respect to medical status, illness concerns, attitudes towards homosexuality, and social support [21].
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 300 women between 40 and 59 years of age were evaluated using Greene scale for climacteric symptoms, Cooper questionnaire for psychosomatic symptoms of stress, Smilkstein family apgar for family dysfunction, Duke-UNC questionnaire for social support and Israel scale for vital events [22].
  • METHODS: A sample of 129 SLE patients (mean age 42.01 years; SD 11.09) was recruited from 9 immunology/rheumatology clinics across Canada. Patients completed questionnaires assessing psychological distress, social support, coping, stress, and health-related quality of life [23].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related symptoms and both received social support and perceived deficits in social support on emotional distress in mothers with MS at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum [24].

Anatomical context of Social Support


Associations of Social Support with chemical compounds


Gene context of Social Support

  • The results of this study suggest that while most BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are likely to complete an adjunctive psycho-educational program, personal history of cancer, cancer-specific distress, and perceptions of social support are likely to influence participation [33].
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor and social support in patients with ovarian carcinoma [34].
  • RESULTS: Besides reporting more job strain, less social support at work, and higher levels of anxiety, depression, vital exhaustion (VE), and sleep impairments, participants with high burnout manifested higher levels of TNF-alpha and HbA1C, independent of confounders including depression [35].
  • The baseline assessment included the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HARS) Rating Scales, the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36 and some forms to collect life events, major difficulties, social support, and ongoing treatments [36].
  • However, group differences in dysphoria and anxiety were accounted for by differences in somatic complaints, whereas differences in interpersonal social support were accounted for by IDDM duration [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Social Support

  • Are there more than cross-sectional relationships of social support and support networks with functional limitations and psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis? the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support Longitudinal Study [38].
  • Influence of social support on cardiac event rate in men with ischaemic type ST segment depression during ambulatory 24-h long-term ECG recording. The prospective population study 'Men born in 1914', Malmö, Sweden [39].
  • The interview consisted of disease-specific questions (RSCL), general questionnaires (NHP I and II, ABS), the Visual Analogue Scale, a specific questionnaire (Anxiety), and evaluative questions about social support and transplantation [40].
  • With regard to social support, the main difference between the groups was that, while 30% of patients with NSCLC received help from specialist palliative care services, none of the patients with COPD had access to a similar system of specialist care [41].
  • Measures of patient health were survival, the Sickness Impact Profile, self-rated health, the Mini-Mental State Exam, Psychological Distress Scale, Social Support Scale, and Problem Behaviors Scale [42].


  1. Stress-related mediators stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by two ovarian cancer cell lines. Lutgendorf, S.K., Cole, S., Costanzo, E., Bradley, S., Coffin, J., Jabbari, S., Rainwater, K., Ritchie, J.M., Yang, M., Sood, A.K. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Progression to AIDS, a clinical AIDS condition and mortality: psychosocial and physiological predictors. Leserman, J., Petitto, J.M., Gu, H., Gaynes, B.N., Barroso, J., Golden, R.N., Perkins, D.O., Folds, J.D., Evans, D.L. Psychological medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. The relationship between social support, depression and treatment for depression in people with multiple sclerosis. Mohr, D.C., Classen, C., Barrera, M. Psychological medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Social networks and coronary heart disease among Japanese men in Hawaii. Reed, D., McGee, D., Yano, K., Feinleib, M. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Social support and salivary cortisol in women with metastatic breast cancer. Turner-Cobb, J.M., Sephton, S.E., Koopman, C., Blake-Mortimer, J., Spiegel, D. Psychosomatic medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. A randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention to improve outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus. Karlson, E.W., Liang, M.H., Eaton, H., Huang, J., Fitzgerald, L., Rogers, M.P., Daltroy, L.H. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Impact of social support on valued activity disability and depressive symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Neugebauer, A., Katz, P.P. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Corticosteroids in relation to fear, anxiety and psychopathology. Korte, S.M. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Dimensions of functional social support and psychological symptoms. Schonfeld, I.S. Psychological medicine. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Self-efficacy and social support as mediators in the relation between disease severity and quality of life in patients with epilepsy. Amir, M., Roziner, I., Knoll, A., Neufeld, M.Y. Epilepsia (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold. Cohen, S., Doyle, W.J., Skoner, D.P., Rabin, B.S., Gwaltney, J.M. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Association of early radiographic damage with impaired physical function in rheumatoid arthritis: a ten-year, longitudinal observational study in 238 patients. Ødegård, S., Landewé, R., van der Heijde, D., Kvien, T.K., Mowinckel, P., Uhlig, T. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Quality of life, social support, and knowledge of disease in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Minnock, P., Fitzgerald, O., Bresnihan, B. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Psychiatric disorder and cognitive impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus. Hay, E.M., Black, D., Huddy, A., Creed, F., Tomenson, B., Bernstein, R.M., Holt, P.J. Arthritis Rheum. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Sex differences in the relationship between social support and risk for major depression: a longitudinal study of opposite-sex twin pairs. Kendler, K.S., Myers, J., Prescott, C.A. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Social network correlates of self-reported non-fatal overdose. Latkin, C.A., Hua, W., Tobin, K. Drug and alcohol dependence. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Factors influencing migraineur-consulting behavior in a university population. Skomo, M.L., Desselle, S.P., Berdine, H.J. Headache. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Plasma pyridoxine deficiency is related to increased psychological distress in recently bereaved homosexual men. Baldewicz, T., Goodkin, K., Feaster, D.J., Blaney, N.T., Kumar, M., Kumar, A., Shor-Posner, G., Baum, M. Psychosomatic medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Clinical and psychosocial predictors of recurrence in recovered bipolar and unipolar depressives: a one-year controlled prospective study. Staner, L., Tracy, A., Dramaix, M., Genevrois, C., Vanderelst, M., Vilane, A., Bauwens, F., Pardoen, D., Mendlewicz, J. Psychiatry research. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Smoking cessation guidelines: evidence-based recommendations of the French Health Products Safety Agency. Le Foll, B., Melihan-Cheinin, P., Rostoker, G., Lagrue, G. Eur. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Illness concerns, attitudes towards homosexuality, and social support in gay men with AIDS. Wolcott, D.L., Namir, S., Fawzy, F.I., Gottlieb, M.S., Mitsuyasu, R.T. General hospital psychiatry. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Relationship between psychological complaints and vasomotor symptoms during climacteric. Blümel, J.E., Castelo-Branco, C., Cancelo, M.J., Córdova, A.T., Binfa, L.E., Bonilla, H.G., Muñoz, I.G., Vergara, V.G., Sarrá, S.C. Maturitas. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus patients during more and less active disease states: differential contributors to mental and physical health. Dobkin, P.L., Da Costa, D., Dritsa, M., Fortin, P.R., Senécal, J.L., Goulet, J.R., Choquette, D., Rich, E., Beaulieu, A., Cividino, A., Edworthy, S., Barr, S., Ensworth, S., Esdaile, J.M., Gladman, D., Smith, D., Zummer, M., Clarke, A.E. Arthritis care and research : the official journal of the Arthritis Health Professions Association. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Postpartum emotional distress in mothers with multiple sclerosis. Gulick, E.E., Kim, S. Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN / NAACOG. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. HIV infection: social network, social support, and CD4 lymphocyte values in infected homosexual men in Malmö, Sweden. Persson, L., Gullberg, B., Hanson, B.S., Moestrup, T., Ostergren, P.O. Journal of epidemiology and community health. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Association between perceived social support and Th1 dominance. Miyazaki, T., Ishikawa, T., Nakata, A., Sakurai, T., Miki, A., Fujita, O., Kobayashi, F., Haratani, T., Iimori, H., Sakami, S., Fujioka, Y., Kawamura, N. Biological psychology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Emotional factors and subjective quality of life in subjects with spinal cord injuries. Bénony, H., Daloz, L., Bungener, C., Chahraoui, K., Frenay, C., Auvin, J. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Impact of stressful life events, depression, social support, coping, and cortisol on progression to AIDS. Leserman, J., Petitto, J.M., Golden, R.N., Gaynes, B.N., Gu, H., Perkins, D.O., Silva, S.G., Folds, J.D., Evans, D.L. The American journal of psychiatry. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of social support on stress-related changes in cholesterol level, uric acid level, and immune function in an elderly sample. Thomas, P.D., Goodwin, J.M., Goodwin, J.S. The American journal of psychiatry. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Social support and long-term lithium outcome. O'Connell, R.A., Mayo, J.A., Eng, L.K., Jones, J.S., Gabel, R.H. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Morning cortisol as a risk factor for subsequent major depressive disorder in adult women. Harris, T.O., Borsanyi, S., Messari, S., Stanford, K., Cleary, S.E., Shiers, H.M., Brown, G.W., Herbert, J. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. HIV-positive injection drug users who leave the hospital against medical advice: the mitigating role of methadone and social support. Chan, A.C., Palepu, A., Guh, D.P., Sun, H., Schechter, M.T., O'Shaughnessy, M.V., Anis, A.H. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Predictors of participation in psychosocial telephone counseling following genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Halbert, C.H., Wenzel, L., Lerman, C., Peshkin, B.N., Narod, S., Marcus, A., Corio, C., Demarco, T., Bellamy, S. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Vascular endothelial growth factor and social support in patients with ovarian carcinoma. Lutgendorf, S.K., Johnsen, E.L., Cooper, B., Anderson, B., Sorosky, J.I., Buller, R.E., Sood, A.K. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Physiological correlates of burnout among women. Grossi, G., Perski, A., Evengård, B., Blomkvist, V., Orth-Gomér, K. Journal of psychosomatic research. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Case review vs. usual care in primary care patients with depression: a pilot study. Ceroni, G.B., Rucci, P., Berardi, D., Ceroni, F.B., Katon, W. General hospital psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Aberrant parasympathetic and hemodynamic function distinguishes a subgroup of psychologically distressed individuals with asymptomatic type-I diabetes mellitus. Motivala, S.J., Hurwitz, B.E., LaGreca, A.M., Llabre, M.M., Marks, J.B., Skyler, J.S., Schneiderman, N. International journal of behavioral medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Are there more than cross-sectional relationships of social support and support networks with functional limitations and psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis? the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support Longitudinal Study. Demange, V., Guillemin, F., Baumann, M., Suurmeijer, T.P., Moum, T., Doeglas, D., Briançon, S., van den Heuvel, W.J. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Influence of social support on cardiac event rate in men with ischaemic type ST segment depression during ambulatory 24-h long-term ECG recording. The prospective population study 'Men born in 1914', Malmö, Sweden. Hedblad, B., Ostergren, P.O., Hanson, B.S., Janzon, L., Johansson, B.W., Juul-Möller, S. Eur. Heart J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Comparison before and after transplantation of pancreas-kidney and pancreas-kidney with loss of pancreas--a prospective controlled quality of life study. Adang, E.M., Engel, G.L., van Hooff, J.P., Kootstra, G. Transplantation (1996) [Pubmed]
  41. How well do we care for patients with end stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? A comparison of palliative care and quality of life in COPD and lung cancer. Gore, J.M., Brophy, C.J., Greenstone, M.A. Thorax (2000) [Pubmed]
  42. Data collection in the Adult Day Health Care Evaluation Study. Chapko, M., Rothman, M.L., Ehreth, J., Hedrick, S.C., Sullivan, J., Erdly, W., Cooper, S. Medical care. (1993) [Pubmed]
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