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Gene Review

MRAP  -  melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: B27, C21orf61, FALP, FGD2, Fat cell-specific low molecular weight protein, ...
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Disease relevance of MRAP

  • CONCLUSION: Multiple single sections Turbo FLASH MRAP may be a valuable adjunct for pre-operative detection of malignant hepatic neoplasms [1].
  • RESULTS: The overall sensitivity in detecting liver metastases was 97% with MRAP and 93% with CTAP (p > 0.05, not significant [n.s.]) [2].
  • The MR images of 24 patients with 39 hepatocellular carcinomas and 18 benign hepatocellular nodules examined with dynamic MR imaging and MRAP within a 14-day interval were retrospectively reviewed [3].
  • The purpose of this study was to document the additional value of MR imaging during arterial portography (MRAP) in patients examined with intravenous contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging for the assessment of focal lesions in patients with cirrhosis or chronic viral hepatitis [3].
  • If organizational difficulties of MRAP can be overcome, MRAP could be considered instead of CTAP in the preoperative invasive evaluation of metastatic liver disease [2].

Psychiatry related information on MRAP

  • In contrast, cells expressing B27 with the single substitution of F for H at position 9 (B27.H9F) retained their permissiveness [4].

High impact information on MRAP


Chemical compound and disease context of MRAP


Biological context of MRAP

  • Whether the novel MRAP mutation described by us is associated with a particularly severe phenotype remains to be investigated [14].
  • Mean RAP (MRAP) was measured by ophthalmodynamometry (ODM) and was expressed as a ratio of the mean systemic arterial blood pressure (i.e., MRAP/MSAP) [15].
  • Experiments with hybrid exons created from the HLA-B27 and HLA-A2 genes yielded results consistent with the mapping of the ME1 epitope to the B27 alpha 1 domain [16].
  • The other gene, also carried on the sixth chromosome and, in the first family, marked by the HLA A11, B27, CW2 haplotype might result in an increased absorption of dietary iron [17].
  • These observations suggest an unappreciated mechanism for autoimmunity that may operate in the B27-associated spondyloarthropathies involving peptides bound to and derived from histocompatibility alleles [18].

Anatomical context of MRAP

  • Whereas the function of Falp is currently unclear, its tissue specific expression and the responsiveness to insulin suggest that Falp might be involved in a process specifically restricted to adipose tissue function, such as vesicular transport and protein secretion [19].
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In addition to static T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging, MRAP was performed immediately after hepatic angiography through contrast material injection into intraarterially placed catheters (superior mesenteric or splenic artery) in 21 patients with nodular hepatocellular carcinoma [20].
  • The B27 molecule in this family proved to be the B2702 subtype on isoelectric focusing gels, appearing in exactly the same position as B2702 from other cell lines that did present the peptide [21].
  • We first noted that EBV-specific CTL clones, whether from B27.05-, B27.02-, or B27.04-positive donors, were largely subtype-specific in their restriction, recognizing only EBV-transformed B cell lines of the relevant B27 subtype [22].
  • These results suggest that the expression of HLA-B27 in bone marrow-derived cells alone is sufficient for the development of B27-associated disease, and that disease transfer requires engraftment of a bone marrow precursor cell for which mature cells in spleen or in lymph node cannot substitute [23].

Associations of MRAP with chemical compounds

  • MRAP followed with gadolinium-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted 3D FLASH [2].
  • Moreover, crosslinking native or truncated A2 or B27 induced IL-2 production upon co-stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate [24].
  • By a series of sequential immunoprecipitation experiments, X was shown to be a "public" antigenic determinant distinct from the "private" determinants B7, Bw22, B27, and B40, but present on the same 44,000-dalton glycoprotein molecules [25].
  • Normal luminal bacteria predictably and uniformly induce chronic colonic, gastric and systemic inflammation in B27 transgenic F344 rats, but all bacterial species do not have equal activities [26].
  • Levamisole-induced adverse reactions in HLA B27-positive rheumatoid arthritis [27].

Other interactions of MRAP

  • The MRAP protein appears to function in the trafficking and cell surface expression of the ACTH receptor, and might indicate the existence of more widespread G-protein-coupled receptor trafficking mechanisms [28].
  • The sensitivity for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher for MRAP (94%) than for CTAP (83%); however, the difference was not statistically significant (p > .05) [20].
  • Clearly, other genes that cause FGD remain to be discovered, and further work is required on the functions of MRAP and ALADIN in the expectation that they will provide insights into essential biological processes and perhaps identify key therapeutic strategies and targets for these diseases [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MRAP


  1. Multiple single sections Turbo FLASH MR arterial portography in the detection of hepatic neoplasms. Uematsu, H., Yamada, H., Sadato, N., Hayashi, N., Yamamoto, K., Yonekura, Y., Ishii, Y. European journal of radiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison of CT during arterial portography and MR during arterial portography in the detection of liver metastases. Hosch, W.P., Schmidt, S.M., Plaza, S., Dechow, C., Schmidt, J., Ley, S., Kauffmann, G.W., Hansmann, J. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Focal lesions in cirrhotic liver: comparing MR imaging during arterial portography with Gd-enhanced dynamic MR imaging. Yu, J.S., Kim, K.W., Lee, J.T., Yoo, H.S. Yonsei Med. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Enhanced intracellular replication of Salmonella enteritidis in HLA-B27-expressing human monocytic cells: dependency on glutamic acid at position 45 in the B pocket of HLA-B27. Penttinen, M.A., Heiskanen, K.M., Mohapatra, R., DeLay, M.L., Colbert, R.A., Sistonen, L., Granfors, K. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutations in MRAP, encoding a new interacting partner of the ACTH receptor, cause familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. Metherell, L.A., Chapple, J.P., Cooray, S., David, A., Becker, C., Rüschendorf, F., Naville, D., Begeot, M., Khoo, B., Nürnberg, P., Huebner, A., Cheetham, M.E., Clark, A.J. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Letter: Are homozygotes for HLA B27 more susceptible to ankylosing spondylitis? Cohen, T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Evolution and transmission of stable CTL escape mutations in HIV infection. Goulder, P.J., Brander, C., Tang, Y., Tremblay, C., Colbert, R.A., Addo, M.M., Rosenberg, E.S., Nguyen, T., Allen, R., Trocha, A., Altfeld, M., He, S., Bunce, M., Funkhouser, R., Pelton, S.I., Burchett, S.K., McIntosh, K., Korber, B.T., Walker, B.D. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Evidence for a specific B27-associated cell surface marker on lymphocytes of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Seager, K., Bashir, H.V., Geczy, A.F., Edmonds, J., de Vere-Tyndall, A. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. Homocysteine modification of HLA antigens and its immunological consequences. Gao, X.M., Wordsworth, P., McMichael, A.J., Kyaw, M.M., Seifert, M., Rees, D., Dougan, G. Eur. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy with infliximab as an alternative to corticosteroids in the treatment of human leukocyte antigen B27-associated acute anterior uveitis. El-Shabrawi, Y., Hermann, J. Ophthalmology (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Probable chromosomal mutation to resistance to all aminoglycosides in Staphylococcus aureus selected by the therapeutic use of gentamicin: a preliminary report. Heritage, J., Settle, J.A., Lalani, E.N., Lacey, R.W. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Levamisole-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis: association with HLA B27 leukocyte agglutinating and lymphocytotoxic antibodies. Hodinka, L., Géher, P., Merétey, K., Gyódi, E.K., Petrányi, G.G., Bozsóky, S. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. HLA B27 and sacroiliitis in Pima Indians--association in males only. Calin, A., Bennett, P.H., Jupiter, J., Terasaki, P.I. The Journal of rheumatology. Supplement. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Unusual Presentation of Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency with a Novel MRAP Mutation. Modan-Moses, D., Ben-Zeev, B., Hoffmann, C., Falik-Zaccai, T.C., Bental, Y.A., Pinhas-Hamiel, O., Anikster, Y. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Retinal artery pressure and cerebral artery perfusion pressure in cerebrovascular occlusive disease. Little, J.R., Tomsak, R.L., Ebrahim, Z.Y., Furlan, A.J. Neurosurgery (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. In vitro mutagenesis of HLA-B27. Substitution of an unpaired cysteine residue in the alpha 1 domain causes loss of antibody-defined epitopes. Taurog, J.D., el-Zaatari, F.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Histocompatibility antigens as markers of abnormal iron metabolism in patients with idiopathic haemochromatosis and their relatives. Bomford, A., Eddleston, A.L., Kennedy, L.A., Batchelor, J.R., Williams, R. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. HLA-B27 binding of peptide from its own sequence and similar peptides from bacteria: implications for spondyloarthropathies. Scofield, R.H., Kurien, B., Gross, T., Warren, W.L., Harley, J.B. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of novel putative membrane proteins selectively expressed during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells. Xu, A., Choi, K.L., Wang, Y., Permana, P.A., Xu, L.Y., Bogardus, C., Cooper, G.J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. MR imaging during arterial portography for assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with CT during arterial portography. Yu, J.S., Kim, K.W., Lee, J.T., Yoo, H.S. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic modulation of antigen presentation by HLA-B27 molecules. Pazmany, L., Rowland-Jones, S., Huet, S., Hill, A., Sutton, J., Murray, R., Brooks, J., McMichael, A. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Different HLA-B27 subtypes present the same immunodominant Epstein-Barr virus peptide. Brooks, J.M., Murray, R.J., Thomas, W.A., Kurilla, M.G., Rickinson, A.B. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Transfer of the inflammatory disease of HLA-B27 transgenic rats by bone marrow engraftment. Breban, M., Hammer, R.E., Richardson, J.A., Taurog, J.D. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Analysis of T cell signaling by class I MHC molecules: the cytoplasmic domain is not required for signal transduction. Gur, H., el-Zaatari, F., Geppert, T.D., Wacholtz, M.C., Taurog, J.D., Lipsky, P.E. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Public antigenic determinant on a family of HLA-B molecules. Schwartz, B.D., Luehrman, L.K., Rodey, G.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Normal luminal bacteria, especially Bacteroides species, mediate chronic colitis, gastritis, and arthritis in HLA-B27/human beta2 microglobulin transgenic rats. Rath, H.C., Herfarth, H.H., Ikeda, J.S., Grenther, W.B., Hamm, T.E., Balish, E., Taurog, J.D., Hammer, R.E., Wilson, K.H., Sartor, R.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Levamisole-induced adverse reactions in HLA B27-positive rheumatoid arthritis. Veys, E.M., Mielants, H., Verbruggen, G. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Inherited ACTH insensitivity illuminates the mechanisms of ACTH action. Clark, A.J., Metherell, L.A., Cheetham, M.E., Huebner, A. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Genetics of ACTH insensitivity syndromes. Clark, J.L., Metherell, L.A., Naville, D., Begeot, M., Huebner, A. Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris) (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Intraarterial portography with gadopentetate dimeglumine: improved liver-to-lesion contrast in MR imaging. Pavone, P., Giuliani, S., Cardone, G., Occhiato, R., Di Renzi, P., Petroni, G.A., Buoni, C., Passariello, R. Radiology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. MR arterial portography with gadolinium-DOTA: analysis of nontumoral perfusion abnormalities. Soyer, P., Laissy, J.P. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. (1996) [Pubmed]
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