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Gene Review

Kitlg  -  KIT ligand

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Hematopoietic growth factor KL, Kit ligand, Kitl, MGF, Mast cell growth factor, ...
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Disease relevance of Kitl

  • Stem cell factor contributes to intestinal mucosal mast cell hyperplasia in rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or Trichinella spiralis, but anti-stem cell factor treatment decreases parasite egg production during N brasiliensis infection [1].
  • Previous studies have shown that traumatic brain injury is associated with a profound decline in intracellular free magnesium (Mgf) and in total tissue magnesium (Mgt), the extent of Mgf decline being linearly correlated to the severity of injury and resultant neurological deficit [2].
  • A construct in which the proximal MGF binding site in the beta-casein promoter region has been inactivated by mutation and a construct regulated by the adenovirus major late promoter served as controls [3].
  • Pertussis toxin (PT) inhibited SCF-induced potentiation of IgE-dependent histamine secretion, indicating that PT-sensitive G-proteins are involved in the immediate effects of SCF [4].

High impact information on Kitl

  • Partial cDNA and genomic clones of rat stem cell factor (SCF) have been isolated [5].
  • Finally, using an oligonucleotide encompassing both the YY1 and MGF sites, we detected a slow-mobility complex only in extracts from mammary glands at late pregnancy and lactation (lactation-associated complex [LAC]) [6].
  • Second, it was demonstrated that extracts prepared from several cell types contained a protein(s) interacting with the mammary gland-specific factor (MGF) binding site, previously shown to be required for beta-casein promoter activity (Schmitt-Ney et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:3745-3755, 1991) [6].
  • Ethylnitrosourea-induced rat mammary tumor cell lines were transfected with vector containing either control (no insert, C-P), sense (S-P), or antisense (AS-P) SCF DNA [7].
  • The present results indicate that the signal transduction of the SCF/KIT system plays a crucial role in the development of oval cells, at least, in the rat AAF/PH model, and suggest that KIT-mediated signal transduction plays only a small role in determining the phenotype and in the proliferative activity of oval cells [8].

Biological context of Kitl

  • This response was selective and associated, in ethylene dimethane sulfonate-treated animals, with a decrease in the mRNA levels of stem cell factor (SCF), i.e. a key signal in spermatogenesis and a putative regulator of Leydig cell development [9].
  • Thus, the effects of ghrelin on SCF gene expression were evaluated [9].
  • Also, MGF is expressed with an early upregulation in loaded tendon tissue [10].
  • We investigated the inhibitory activity of nerve growth factor (NGF) on apoptosis of rat peritoneal mast cells (PMCs) and compared it with that of recombinant stem cell factor (rSCF), which is a mast cell growth factor [11].
  • A subsequent proliferative response to stem cell factor (SCF), the ligand for the proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit, is characterized by an initial maturation in immunophenotype and subsequent self-renewal of cells (SCF blasts) without differentiation for at least 50 generations [12].

Anatomical context of Kitl


Associations of Kitl with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Kitl


Other interactions of Kitl


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Kitl

  • Sequence analysis of this site revealed similarity to the gamma interferon-activated sequence, suggesting that MGF may be related to the stat91 signaling protein [6].
  • There was a good correlation between the binding of 3H-SCF and its biological activity, as evidenced by a selective suppression of basal FSH release in pituitary cell cultures [21].
  • The present study further characterized the binding of [3H]SCF to rat anterior pituitary in vitro and explored its potential use as a radioreceptor assay for SCF and other inhibin preparations [22].
  • Tritium-labeled SCF (3H-SCF), synthesized by rat Sertoli cells in vitro in the presence of 3H-leucine and partly purified by Sephadex gel chromatography, was used to the ligand [21].
  • Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of stem cell factor (SCF) in proliferating oval cells during 6 weeks of copper depletion, and Northern blot analysis revealed the expression of liver-enriched transcription factors in the rat pancreas during this 4-6-week period of copper deficiency [23].


  1. Stem cell factor contributes to intestinal mucosal mast cell hyperplasia in rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or Trichinella spiralis, but anti-stem cell factor treatment decreases parasite egg production during N brasiliensis infection. Newlands, G.F., Miller, H.R., MacKellar, A., Galli, S.J. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Treatment with the thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog CG3703 restores magnesium homeostasis following traumatic brain injury in rats. Vink, R., McIntosh, T.K., Faden, A.I. Brain Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. The activated mammary gland specific nuclear factor (MGF) enhances in vitro transcription of the beta-casein gene promoter. Happ, B., Groner, B. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Stem cell factor potentiates histamine secretion by multiple mechanisms, but does not affect tumour necrosis factor-alpha release from rat mast cells. Lin, T.J., Bissonnette, E.Y., Hirsh, A., Befus, A.D. Immunology (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Primary structure and functional expression of rat and human stem cell factor DNAs. Martin, F.H., Suggs, S.V., Langley, K.E., Lu, H.S., Ting, J., Okino, K.H., Morris, C.F., McNiece, I.K., Jacobsen, F.W., Mendiaz, E.A. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. YY1 represses beta-casein gene expression by preventing the formation of a lactation-associated complex. Raught, B., Khursheed, B., Kazansky, A., Rosen, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Modulation of tumor angiogenesis by stem cell factor. Zhang, W., Stoica, G., Tasca, S.I., Kelly, K.A., Meininger, C.J. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase in development of oval cells in the rat 2-acetylaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy model. Matsusaka, S., Tsujimura, T., Toyosaka, A., Nakasho, K., Sugihara, A., Okamoto, E., Uematsu, K., Terada, N. Hepatology (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Ghrelin inhibits the proliferative activity of immature Leydig cells in vivo and regulates stem cell factor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat testis. Barreiro, M.L., Gaytan, F., Castellano, J.M., Suominen, J.S., Roa, J., Gaytan, M., Aguilar, E., Dieguez, C., Toppari, J., Tena-Sempere, M. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and collagen mRNA in mechanically loaded plantaris tendon. Olesen, J.L., Heinemeier, K.M., Haddad, F., Langberg, H., Flyvbjerg, A., Kjaer, M., Baldwin, K.M. J. Appl. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Nerve growth factor prevents apoptosis of rat peritoneal mast cells through the trk proto-oncogene receptor. Kawamoto, K., Okada, T., Kannan, Y., Ushio, H., Matsumoto, M., Matsuda, H. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Self-renewal, maturation, and differentiation of the rat myelomonocytic hematopoietic stem cell. Lucas, T., Krugluger, W., Samorapoompichit, P., Gamperl, R., Beug, H., Förster, O., Boltz-Nitulescu, G. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Amino acid sequence and post-translational modification of stem cell factor isolated from buffalo rat liver cell-conditioned medium. Lu, H.S., Clogston, C.L., Wypych, J., Fausset, P.R., Lauren, S., Mendiaz, E.A., Zsebo, K.M., Langley, K.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Stem cell factor protects germ cells from apoptosis in vitro. Yan, W., Suominen, J., Toppari, J. J. Cell. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of stem cell factor (kit-ligand) and interleukin-3 on the growth and serine proteinase expression of rat bone-marrow-derived or serosal mast cells. Haig, D.M., Huntley, J.F., MacKellar, A., Newlands, G.F., Inglis, L., Sangha, R., Cohen, D., Hapel, A., Galli, S.J., Miller, H.R. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Stem cell factor-induced signal transduction in rat mast cells. Activation of phospholipase D but not phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in c-kit receptor stimulation. Koike, T., Hirai, K., Morita, Y., Nozawa, Y. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. The Src-selective kinase inhibitor PP1 also inhibits Kit and Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinases. Tatton, L., Morley, G.M., Chopra, R., Khwaja, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent delayed prostaglandin D2 generation is initiated by nerve growth factor in rat peritoneal mast cells: its augmentation by extracellular type II secretory phospholipase A2. Murakami, M., Tada, K., Nakajima, K., Kudo, I. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Kit ligand and basic fibroblast growth factor interactions in the induction of ovarian primordial to primary follicle transition. Nilsson, E.E., Skinner, M.K. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. C-kit ligand (Stem Cell Factor) affects neuronal activity, stimulates pituitary-adrenal axis and prolactin secretion in rats. Kovács, K.J., Földes, A., Vizi, E.S. J. Neuroimmunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Binding of 3H-Sertoli cell factor to rat anterior pituitary in vitro. Steinberger, A., Seethalakshmi, L., Kessler, M., Steinberger, E. Endocrinology (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Pituitary binding of 3H-labeled Sertoli cell factor in vitro: a potential radioreceptor assay for inhibin. Seethalakshmi, L., Steinberger, A., Steinberger, E. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of transcription factors and stem cell factor precedes hepatocyte differentiation in rat pancreas. Rao, M.S., Yukawa, M., Omori, M., Thorgeirsson, S.S., Reddy, J.K. Gene Expr. (1996) [Pubmed]
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