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Gene Review

KITLG  -  KIT ligand

Canis lupus familiaris

Synonyms: 710-712, CSF, MGF
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Disease relevance of KITLG

  • Alterations in plasma and CSF amino acids, amines and metabolites in hepatic coma [1].
  • The control group, which received intraventricular artificial CSF, developed minimal ventricular fluid acidosis (pH 7.26) [2].
  • When halothane or enflurane were used for anesthesia, the CSF pressure-lowering effect of hypocapnia was not sustained [3].
  • Experimental intraventricular hemorrhage was produced by injection of autologous fresh blood (0.25 ml/kg) or artificial CSF into the right lateral ventricle of 24 dogs [2].
  • Levels of brain creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) in CSF after cardiac arrest were studied in dog models [4].

Psychiatry related information on KITLG

  • However, these findings do not negate the possibility that Ang II acts synergistically with CSF Na+, but not plasma Na+, to modulate drinking behavior [5].

High impact information on KITLG

  • Less pronounced but significant elevations in monocytes occurred during G-CSF treatment [6].
  • However, there was an increase in the concentration of eicosanoids in CSF, and the elevation of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha paralleled the vasodilation [7].
  • In another experiment, an intrinsic PKC activator, 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), in the basilar artery, the CSF, and the cisternal clot of beagles exposed to two hemorrhages was measured on days 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 using the DAG kinase method [8].
  • This relationship of CBF to CMRO2 was examined in six anesthetized dogs that were subjected to 12 min of complete ischemia induced either by CSF compression or aortic occlusion [9].
  • Hemoglobin and its metabolite, bilirubin, have been shown to be present in high concentrations in CSF following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of KITLG


Biological context of KITLG

  • KITLG maps to canine chromosome 15 and is excluded as a candidate gene for merle in dogs [14].
  • Normal flow values could be reestablished even at a raised CSFP if the perfusion pressure was increased by raising the arterial blood pressure [15].
  • Part I of these studies (Artru, 1987) examined how cerebral blood volume (CBV), CSF volume, and brain tissue water and electrolytes determined CSF pressure during 4 h of hypocapnia in sedated dogs [3].
  • PURPOSE: To determine the effect of intraocular pressure (IOP) and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) on optic disc movement and lamina cribrosa displacement using confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT) [16].
  • We conclude that 1) PP and insulin in CSF do not appear to play a major role in the short term regulation of food intake and acute changes in energy metabolism; and 2) PP, probably after entering the brain, may modulate brain function in such physiological situations as strenuous exercise [12].

Anatomical context of KITLG

  • The effect of cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) on spinal cord blood flow (SCBF), measured by the hydrogen clearance technique, was studied in dogs [15].
  • CSFP was altered by the infusion of mock CSF into the lumbar subarachnoid space [15].
  • Two plasmas were studied: One (AP1) contained electrolytes, amino acids, and albumin; the other (AP2) was similar to CSF and contained a mixture of 37 organic nutrients plus electrolytes and albumin [17].
  • We infused the ganglion blocker, trimethaphan, intravenously into anesthetized dogs and measured the effects on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and on cisterna magna CSF levels of NE [18].
  • In the dogs with healthy meninges the ratio CSF/plasma AUCs was 47% after 25 mg/kg and 33% after 12.5 mg/kg [19].

Associations of KITLG with chemical compounds

  • With halothane the intracranial volume increase was comprised chiefly of cerebral blood and with enflurane the intracranial volume increase was comprised chiefly of CSF [3].
  • At this time, brain water content was significantly less than normal, but both CSF osmolality and glycerol concentration were higher than plasma [20].
  • In both groups, CSF [HCO3-] and [H+] increased approximately 3 mEq/L and 20 nEq/L, respectively [13].
  • In this study the pentetrazole seizure threshold of dogs was compared with the concentration of GABA in the CSF and blood plasma [11].
  • It was expected that the serotonin synthesis rates determined for the whole brain would be correlated with CSF 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid concentrations, a measure of central serotonin turnover, because both measures were obtained at steady state [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of KITLG


  1. Alterations in plasma and CSF amino acids, amines and metabolites in hepatic coma. Smith, A.R., Rossi-Fanelli, F., Ziparo, V., James, J.H., Perelle, B.A., Fischer, J.E. Ann. Surg. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. The metabolic consequences of experimental intraventricular hemorrhage. Pranzatelli, M.R., Stumpf, D.A. Neurology (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Reduction of cerebrospinal fluid pressure by hypocapnia: changes in cerebral blood volume, cerebrospinal fluid volume and brain tissue water and electrolytes. II. Effects of anesthetics. Artru, A.A. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Brain enzyme levels in CSF after cardiac arrest and resuscitation in dogs: markers of damage and predictors of outcome. Vaagenes, P., Safar, P., Diven, W., Moossy, J., Rao, G., Cantadore, R., Kelsey, S. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Angiotensin II-induced drinking in water-deprived and nephrectomized dogs. Suzuki, H., Saruta, T., Brosnihan, K.B., Ferrario, C.M. Japanese heart journal. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Correction of canine cyclic hematopoiesis with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Lothrop, C.D., Warren, D.J., Souza, L.M., Jones, J.B., Moore, M.A. Blood (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Vasodilator effects on canine basilar artery induced by intracisternal interleukin-1 beta. Osuka, K., Suzuki, Y., Watanabe, Y., Dogan, A., Takayasu, M., Shibuya, M., Yoshida, J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Possible role of protein kinase C-dependent smooth muscle contraction in the pathogenesis of chronic cerebral vasospasm. Matsui, T., Takuwa, Y., Johshita, H., Yamashita, K., Asano, T. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Postischemic canine cerebral blood flow is coupled to cerebral metabolic rate. Michenfelder, J.D., Milde, J.H., Katusić, Z.S. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of bilirubin on cerebral arterial tone in vitro. Miao, F.J., Lee, T.J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Relationship between GABA concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and seizure excitability. Löscher, W. J. Neurochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Plasma and cerebroventricular fluid levels of pancreatic polypeptide in the dog: effects of feeding, insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and physical exercise. Inui, A., Okita, M., Miura, M., Hirosue, Y., Mizuno, N., Baba, S., Kasuga, M. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Ionic composition of cisternal CSF in acute respiratory acidosis: lack of effect of large dose bumetanide. Javaheri, S., Davis, C., Rogers, D.H. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. KITLG maps to canine chromosome 15 and is excluded as a candidate gene for merle in dogs. Schmutz, S.M., Berryere, T.G., Sharp, C.A. Anim. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Spinal cord compression and blood flow. I. The effect of raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure on spinal cord blood flow. Griffiths, I.R., Pitts, L.H., Crawford, R.A., Trench, J.G. Neurology (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Morgan, W.H., Chauhan, B.C., Yu, D.Y., Cringle, S.J., Alder, V.A., House, P.H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Evaluation of artificial plasma for maintaining the isolated canine brain. Kintner, D.B., Kao, J.L., Woodson, R.D., Gilboe, D.D. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of ganglion blockade on cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine. Goldstein, D.S., Zimlichman, R., Kelly, G.D., Stull, R., Bacher, J.D., Keiser, H.R. J. Neurochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Diffusion of enoxacin into the cerebrospinal fluid in dogs with healthy meninges and with experimental meningitis. Tran Van Tho, n.u.l.l., Armengaud, A., Davet, B. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of glycerol administration on experimental brain edema. Guisado, R., Arieff, A.I., Massry, S.G. Neurology (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Brain serotonin synthesis rates in rhesus monkeys determined by [11C]alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan and positron emission tomography compared to CSF 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid concentrations. Shoaf, S.E., Carson, R., Hommer, D., Williams, W., Higley, J.D., Schmall, B., Herscovitch, P., Eckelman, W., Linnoila, M. Neuropsychopharmacology (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Angiotensinogen in cerebrospinal fluid corresponds chromatographically to the gamma-form of plasma angiotensinogen. Moffett, R.B. J. Neurochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Phlebotomy reverses the hemodynamic consequences of thoracic aortic cross-clamping: relationships between central venous pressure and cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Mutch, W.A., Thomson, I.R., Teskey, J.M., Thiessen, D., Rosenbloom, M. Anesthesiology (1991) [Pubmed]
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