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Gene Review

Ctgf  -  connective tissue growth factor

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CCN family member 2, Ccn2, Connective tissue growth factor, Connective tissue growth-related protein
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Disease relevance of Ctgf


High impact information on Ctgf


Chemical compound and disease context of Ctgf


Biological context of Ctgf


Anatomical context of Ctgf


Associations of Ctgf with chemical compounds

  • Roles of connective tissue growth factor and prostanoids in early streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidney: the effect of aspirin treatment [2].
  • In cultured MC and PTC, aldosterone induced significant increases in CTGF gene expression and protein synthesis associated with increased collagen synthesis, which was abolished by prior treatment with spironolactone [16].
  • Olmesartan at 10 mg/kg/day tended to decrease renal cortical and medullary Ang II levels, TGF-beta and CTGF expression, and collagen contents; however, these changes were not significant [17].
  • Effect of cyclosporine and sirolimus on the expression of connective tissue growth factor in rat experimental chronic nephrotoxicity [18].
  • Northern blot analysis showed expression of TGF-beta mRNA on days 1 and 3 after indomethacin administration, expression of CTGF mRNA on days 1, 3 and 7 and type III collagen mRNA expression on days 1, 3, 7 and 12, respectively [4].

Regulatory relationships of Ctgf

  • After UUO, CTGF mRNA expression in the obstructed kidney was significantly upregulated subsequent to TGF-beta1, followed by marked induction of fibronectin mRNA [1].
  • Additionally, AGE-induced mitogenesis and type I collagen protein expression were dependent on leptin-induced CTGF [19].
  • We further studied the mechanisms involved in the regulation of MMP-2 mRNA levels and found that the AP-2 transcription factor is responsible for most of the CTGF-induced MMP-2 transcription [15].
  • CTGF is able to promote VSMC proliferation and migration and influences the composition of extracellular matrix [15].
  • This in vitro observation of CTGF mRNA down-regulation coinciding with FSH-induced granulosa cell maturation is substantiated by studies of in vivo ovarian CTGF expression in FSHbeta knockout mice [20].

Other interactions of Ctgf

  • Thus, the effects of AGE (150 microg/ml) and leptin on mitogenesis, CTGF and collagen expression in NRK-49F cells were determined [19].
  • In NRK-49F cells, IGF-I increased the activity of CTGF towards the expression of Col alpha1III [21].
  • The previously identified basal control element-1 (BCE-1) site, but not Sp1 contributes to basal CTGF promoter activity [22].
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a TGF-beta-inducible molecule, has recently been reported to promote fibroblast proliferation, migration, adhesion and extracellular matrix formation, both in vivo and in vitro [23].
  • The protein kinase A antagonist H89 abolished the inhibitory effect of PTX on Smad3/4-dependent CTGF transcription, whereas dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin recapitulated the inhibitory effect [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ctgf


  1. Role of connective tissue growth factor in fibronectin expression and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Yokoi, H., Mukoyama, M., Sugawara, A., Mori, K., Nagae, T., Makino, H., Suganami, T., Yahata, K., Fujinaga, Y., Tanaka, I., Nakao, K. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Roles of connective tissue growth factor and prostanoids in early streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidney: the effect of aspirin treatment. Makino, H., Mukoyama, M., Sugawara, A., Mori, K., Suganami, T., Yahata, K., Fujinaga, Y., Yokoi, H., Tanaka, I., Nakao, K. Clin. Exp. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Cyr61 and CTGF are molecular markers of bladder wall remodeling after outlet obstruction. Chaqour, B., Whitbeck, C., Han, J.S., Macarak, E., Horan, P., Chichester, P., Levin, R. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Connective tissue growth factor in indomethacin-induced rat gastric ulcer. Lempinen, M., Inkinen, K., Wolff, H., Ahonen, J. European surgical research. Europäische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales européennes. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) in rat pancreatic stellate cell function: integrin alpha5beta1 as a novel CCN2 receptor. Gao, R., Brigstock, D.R. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of rCop-1, a new member of the CCN protein family, as a negative regulator for cell transformation. Zhang, R., Averboukh, L., Zhu, W., Zhang, H., Jo, H., Dempsey, P.J., Coffey, R.J., Pardee, A.B., Liang, P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibition of TGF-beta-stimulated CTGF gene expression and anchorage-independent growth by cAMP identifies a CTGF-dependent restriction point in the cell cycle. Kothapalli, D., Hayashi, N., Grotendorst, G.R. FASEB J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Pentoxifylline attenuates tubulointerstitial fibrosis by blocking Smad3/4-activated transcription and profibrogenic effects of connective tissue growth factor. Lin, S.L., Chen, R.H., Chen, Y.M., Chiang, W.C., Lai, C.F., Wu, K.D., Tsai, T.J. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Connective tissue growth factor is a mediator of angiotensin II-induced fibrosis. Rupérez, M., Lorenzo, O., Blanco-Colio, L.M., Esteban, V., Egido, J., Ruiz-Ortega, M. Circulation (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Connective tissue growth factor-mediated angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of proximal tubular cells. Liu, B.C., Chen, L., Sun, J., Huang, H.Q., Ma, K.L., Liu, H., Liu, D.G., Zhang, X.L. Nephron Exp. Nephrol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Angiotensin II increases connective tissue growth factor in the kidney. Rupérez, M., Ruiz-Ortega, M., Esteban, V., Lorenzo, O., Mezzano, S., Plaza, J.J., Egido, J. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Connective tissue growth factor is responsible for transforming growth factor-beta-induced peritoneal mesothelial cell apoptosis. Szeto, C.C., Chow, K.M., Lai, K.B., Szeto, C.Y., Kwan, B.C., Li, P.K. Nephron Exp. Nephrol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Connective tissue growth factor and its correlation to other growth factors in experimental granulation tissue. Inkinen, K., Wolff, H., Lindroos, P., Ahonen, J. Connect. Tissue Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Evidence for low-density lipoprotein-induced expression of connective tissue growth factor in mesangial cells. Sohn, M., Tan, Y., Klein, R.L., Jaffa, A.A. Kidney Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Increased MMP-2 expression in connective tissue growth factor over-expression vascular smooth muscle cells. Fan, W.H., Karnovsky, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Spironolactone ameliorates renal injury and connective tissue growth factor expression in type II diabetic rats. Han, K.H., Kang, Y.S., Han, S.Y., Jee, Y.H., Lee, M.H., Han, J.Y., Kim, H.K., Kim, Y.S., Cha, D.R. Kidney Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Augmentation of intrarenal angiotensin II levels in uninephrectomized aldosterone/salt-treated hypertensive rats; renoprotective effects of an ultrahigh dose of olmesartan. Fan, Y.Y., Baba, R., Nagai, Y., Miyatake, A., Hosomi, N., Kimura, S., Sun, G.P., Kohno, M., Fujita, M., Abe, Y., Nishiyama, A. Hypertens. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of cyclosporine and sirolimus on the expression of connective tissue growth factor in rat experimental chronic nephrotoxicity. Shihab, F.S., Bennett, W.M., Yi, H., Andoh, T.F. American journal of nephrology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Leptin and connective tissue growth factor in advanced glycation end-product-induced effects in NRK-49F cells. Lee, C.I., Guh, J.Y., Chen, H.C., Lin, K.H., Yang, Y.L., Hung, W.C., Lai, Y.H., Chuang, L.Y. J. Cell. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. FSH and TGF-beta superfamily members regulate granulosa cell connective tissue growth factor gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Harlow, C.R., Davidson, L., Burns, K.H., Yan, C., Matzuk, M.M., Hillier, S.G. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Connective tissue growth factor in tubulointerstitial injury of diabetic nephropathy. Wang, S., Denichilo, M., Brubaker, C., Hirschberg, R. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. CTGF expression in mesangial cells: involvement of SMADs, MAP kinase, and PKC. Chen, Y., Blom, I.E., Sa, S., Goldschmeding, R., Abraham, D.J., Leask, A. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Transforming growth factor-beta enhances connective tissue growth factor expression in L6 rat skeletal myotubes. Maeda, N., Kanda, F., Okuda, S., Ishihara, H., Chihara, K. Neuromuscul. Disord. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. HCV core protein promotes liver fibrogenesis via up-regulation of CTGF with TGF-beta1. Shin, J.Y., Hur, W., Wang, J.S., Jang, J.W., Kim, C.W., Bae, S.H., Jang, S.K., Yang, S.H., Sung, Y.C., Kwon, O.J., Yoon, S.K. Exp. Mol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
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