The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

CTGF  -  connective tissue growth factor

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CCN family member 2, CCN2, Connective tissue growth factor, HCS24, Hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific protein 24, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of CTGF


Psychiatry related information on CTGF


High impact information on CTGF


Chemical compound and disease context of CTGF


Biological context of CTGF


Anatomical context of CTGF


Associations of CTGF with chemical compounds

  • Moreover, we observed a partial inhibition in glucose-induced collagen secretion with neutralizing anti-CTGF antibodies, thereby demonstrating for the first time the involvement of endogenous CTGF in glucose-induced effects in human renal fibroblasts [2].
  • Cycloheximide did not block the large TGF-beta stimulation of CTGF gene expression, indicating that it is directly regulated by TGF-beta [24].
  • Only PGF2alpha up-regulated CTGF mRNA expression in the cat iris [21].
  • Because prostamide receptors are, to date, defined only at the pharmacological level, Bimatoprost effects on Cyr61 and CTGF were studied in the isolated feline iris sphincter preparation, a tissue highly responsive to prostamides [21].
  • Activation of prostaglandin EP2 receptors (Gs-coupled) also up-regulated Cyr61 but not CTGF mRNA expression in the isolated cat iris [21].

Physical interactions of CTGF

  • The interaction of VEGF165 with CTGF inhibited the binding of VEGF165 to the endothelial cells and the immobilized KDR/IgG Fc; that is, a recombinant protein for VEGF165 receptor [25].
  • Gao and Brigstock assign to CCN2 module 3 the capacity to mediate binding to low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), which was previously reported to interact with CCN2 and to be involved in various types of signalling [26].
  • It has been demonstrated that human CTGF specifically binds IGFs with low affinity and is considered to be a member of the IGFBP superfamily (IGFBP-rP2) [27].
  • CT domain of CCN2/CTGF directly interacts with fibronectin and enhances cell adhesion of chondrocytes through integrin alpha5beta1 [28].

Regulatory relationships of CTGF


Other interactions of CTGF


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CTGF

  • In addition, Western blot analysis of human gammadelta-T cell lysates prepared 4 days following stimulation with IL-15 and TGF-beta1 revealed a 38-kDa CTGF protein in cell lysates of human gammadelta-T cells [3].
  • METHODS: CTGF gene and protein expression, as well as protein levels of CTGF in the synovium, after treatment with the TSP-1-derived peptide were studied in the peptidoglycan-polysaccharide animal model of erosive arthritis [40].
  • Immunofluorescence studies showed that the mean area fraction of CTGF immunoreactivity in the peptide-treated group of animals was significantly less than that in the untreated group [40].
  • By immunohistochemistry, CTGF protein was localized at high levels in the same cell types as CTGF mRNA [41].
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of CTGF mRNA in cultured primay HPMCs isolated from spent peritoneal effluent [42].


  1. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression decreases the survival and myogenic differentiation of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Croci, S., Landuzzi, L., Astolfi, A., Nicoletti, G., Rosolen, A., Sartori, F., Follo, M.Y., Oliver, N., De Giovanni, C., Nanni, P., Lollini, P.L. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Connective tissue growth factor and igf-I are produced by human renal fibroblasts and cooperate in the induction of collagen production by high glucose. Lam, S., van der Geest, R.N., Verhagen, N.A., van Nieuwenhoven, F.A., Blom, I.E., Aten, J., Goldschmeding, R., Daha, M.R., van Kooten, C. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Human gamma delta-T lymphocytes express and synthesize connective tissue growth factor: effect of IL-15 and TGF-beta 1 and comparison with alpha beta-T lymphocytes. Workalemahu, G., Foerster, M., Kroegel, C., Braun, R.K. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Pathogenic role of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in osteolytic metastasis of breast cancer. Shimo, T., Kubota, S., Yoshioka, N., Ibaragi, S., Isowa, S., Eguchi, T., Sasaki, A., Takigawa, M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Kinetics of connective tissue growth factor expression during experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis. Ito, Y., Goldschmeding, R., Bende, R., Claessen, N., Chand, M., Kleij, L., Rabelink, T., Weening, J., Aten, J. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Promoter hypermethylation contributes to frequent inactivation of a putative conditional tumor suppressor gene connective tissue growth factor in ovarian cancer. Kikuchi, R., Tsuda, H., Kanai, Y., Kasamatsu, T., Sengoku, K., Hirohashi, S., Inazawa, J., Imoto, I. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Hypoxia in human trophoblasts stimulates the expression and secretion of connective tissue growth factor. Rimon, E., Chen, B., Shanks, A.L., Nelson, D.M., Sadovsky, Y. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  8. Connective tissue growth factor and susceptibility to renal and vascular disease risk in type 1 diabetes. Jaffa, A.A., Usinger, W.R., McHenry, M.B., Jaffa, M.A., Lipstiz, S.R., Lackland, D., Lopes-Virella, M., Luttrell, L.M., Wilson, P.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2008) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of connective tissue growth factor in mediating hypertrophy of human proximal tubular cells induced by angiotensin II. Liu, B.C., Sun, J., Chen, Q., Ma, K.L., Ruan, X.Z., Phillips, A.O. American journal of nephrology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Connective tissue growth factor in Alzheimer's disease. Ueberham, U., Ueberham, E., Gruschka, H., Arendt, T. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. A syndrome of altered cardiovascular, craniofacial, neurocognitive and skeletal development caused by mutations in TGFBR1 or TGFBR2. Loeys, B.L., Chen, J., Neptune, E.R., Judge, D.P., Podowski, M., Holm, T., Meyers, J., Leitch, C.C., Katsanis, N., Sharifi, N., Xu, F.L., Myers, L.A., Spevak, P.J., Cameron, D.E., De Backer, J., Hellemans, J., Chen, Y., Davis, E.C., Webb, C.L., Kress, W., Coucke, P., Rifkin, D.B., De Paepe, A.M., Dietz, H.C. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The connective tissue growth factor/cysteine-rich 61/nephroblastoma overexpressed (CCN) family. Brigstock, D.R. Endocr. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Iloprost suppresses connective tissue growth factor production in fibroblasts and in the skin of scleroderma patients. Stratton, R., Shiwen, X., Martini, G., Holmes, A., Leask, A., Haberberger, T., Martin, G.R., Black, C.M., Abraham, D. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Accumulation of NH2-terminal fragment of connective tissue growth factor in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Hinton, D.R., Spee, C., He, S., Weitz, S., Usinger, W., LaBree, L., Oliver, N., Lim, J.I. Diabetes Care (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor by siRNA prevents liver fibrosis in rats. Li, G., Xie, Q., Shi, Y., Li, D., Zhang, M., Jiang, S., Zhou, H., Lu, H., Jin, Y. The journal of gene medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of lysyl oxidase, collagen, and connective tissue growth factor by TGF-beta1 and detection in human gingiva. Hong, H.H., Uzel, M.I., Duan, C., Sheff, M.C., Trackman, P.C. Lab. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Connective tissue growth factor in drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Uzel, M.I., Kantarci, A., Hong, H.H., Uygur, C., Sheff, M.C., Firatli, E., Trackman, P.C. J. Periodontol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. The C-terminal domain of the regulatory protein NOVH is sufficient to promote interaction with fibulin 1C: a clue for a role of NOVH in cell-adhesion signaling. Perbal, B., Martinerie, C., Sainson, R., Werner, M., He, B., Roizman, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of integrin alpha(M)beta(2) as an adhesion receptor on peripheral blood monocytes for Cyr61 (CCN1) and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2): immediate-early gene products expressed in atherosclerotic lesions. Schober, J.M., Chen, N., Grzeszkiewicz, T.M., Jovanovic, I., Emeson, E.E., Ugarova, T.P., Ye, R.D., Lau, L.F., Lam, S.C. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Tumor necrosis factor alpha suppresses the induction of connective tissue growth factor by transforming growth factor-beta in normal and scleroderma fibroblasts. Abraham, D.J., Shiwen, X., Black, C.M., Sa, S., Xu, Y., Leask, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparison of prostaglandin F2alpha, bimatoprost (prostamide), and butaprost (EP2 agonist) on Cyr61 and connective tissue growth factor gene expression. Liang, Y., Li, C., Guzman, V.M., Evinger, A.J., Protzman, C.E., Krauss, A.H., Woodward, D.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Connective tissue growth factor: a mediator of TGF-beta action on fibroblasts. Grotendorst, G.R. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. The role of p42/44 MAPK and protein kinase B in connective tissue growth factor induced extracellular matrix protein production, cell migration, and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement in human mesangial cells. Crean, J.K., Finlay, D., Murphy, M., Moss, C., Godson, C., Martin, F., Brady, H.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Regulation of connective tissue growth factor gene expression in human skin fibroblasts and during wound repair. Igarashi, A., Okochi, H., Bradham, D.M., Grotendorst, G.R. Mol. Biol. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Connective tissue growth factor binds vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Inoki, I., Shiomi, T., Hashimoto, G., Enomoto, H., Nakamura, H., Makino, K., Ikeda, E., Takata, S., Kobayashi, K., Okada, Y. FASEB J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. CCN proteins: multifunctional signalling regulators. Perbal, B. Lancet (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. CTGF (IGFBP-rP2) is specifically expressed in malignant lymphoblasts of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Vorwerk, P., Wex, H., Hohmann, B., Oh, Y., Rosenfeld, R.G., Mittler, U. Br. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. CT domain of CCN2/CTGF directly interacts with fibronectin and enhances cell adhesion of chondrocytes through integrin alpha5beta1. Hoshijima, M., Hattori, T., Inoue, M., Araki, D., Hanagata, H., Miyauchi, A., Takigawa, M. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Transforming growth factor-beta promotes pro-fibrotic behavior by serosal fibroblasts via PKC and ERK1/2 mitogen activated protein kinase cell signaling. Mulsow, J.J., Watson, R.W., Fitzpatrick, J.M., O'Connell, P.R. Ann. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Vascular endothelial growth factor reduced and connective tissue growth factor induced by triamcinolone in ARPE19 cells under oxidative stress. Matsuda, S., Gomi, F., Oshima, Y., Tohyama, M., Tano, Y. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Smad3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 coordinately mediate transforming growth factor-beta-induced expression of connective tissue growth factor in human fibroblasts. Leivonen, S.K., Häkkinen, L., Liu, D., Kähäri, V.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Interleukin-4 regulates connective tissue growth factor expression in human lung fibroblasts. Rishikof, D.C., Ricupero, D.A., Kuang, P.P., Liu, H., Goldstein, R.H. J. Cell. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits transforming growth factor beta-induced connective tissue growth factor expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells by interfering with Smad3. Fu, M., Zhang, J., Zhu, X., Myles, D.E., Willson, T.M., Liu, X., Chen, Y.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) stimulates connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) expression in human gingival fibroblasts through a RhoA-independent, Rac1/Cdc42-dependent mechanism: statins with forskolin block TGFbeta1-induced CCN2/CTGF expression. Black, S.A., Trackman, P.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  35. Elevated levels of connective tissue growth factor, WISP-1, and CYR61 in primary breast cancers associated with more advanced features. Xie, D., Nakachi, K., Wang, H., Elashoff, R., Koeffler, H.P. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Matrix metalloproteinases cleave connective tissue growth factor and reactivate angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial growth factor 165. Hashimoto, G., Inoki, I., Fujii, Y., Aoki, T., Ikeda, E., Okada, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Glomerular expression of thrombospondin-1, transforming growth factor beta and connective tissue growth factor at different stages of diabetic nephropathy and their interdependent roles in mesangial response to diabetic stimuli. Wahab, N.A., Schaefer, L., Weston, B.S., Yiannikouris, O., Wright, A., Babelova, A., Schaefer, R., Mason, R.M. Diabetologia (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Differential effects of TGF-beta on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression in hepatic stellate cells and hepatocytes. Gressner, O.A., Lahme, B., Demirci, I., Gressner, A.M., Weiskirchen, R. J. Hepatol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  39. CTGF enhances the motility of breast cancer cells via an integrin-alphavbeta3-ERK1/2-dependent S100A4-upregulated pathway. Chen, P.S., Wang, M.Y., Wu, S.N., Su, J.L., Hong, C.C., Chuang, S.E., Chen, M.W., Hua, K.T., Wu, Y.L., Cha, S.T., Babu, M.S., Chen, C.N., Lee, P.H., Chang, K.J., Kuo, M.L. J. Cell. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  40. A peptide from thrombospondin 1 modulates experimental erosive arthritis by regulating connective tissue growth factor. Manns, J.M., Uknis, A.B., Rico, M.C., Agelan, A., Castaneda, J., Arango, I., Barbe, M.F., Safadi, F.F., Popoff, S.N., DeLa Cadena, R.A. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  41. Connective tissue growth factor is involved in pancreatic repair and tissue remodeling in human and rat acute necrotizing pancreatitis. di Mola, F.F., Friess, H., Riesle, E., Koliopanos, A., Büchler, P., Zhu, Z., Brigstock, D.R., Korc, M., Büchler, M.W. Ann. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Connective tissue growth factor and its regulation in the peritoneal cavity of peritoneal dialysis patients. Zarrinkalam, K.H., Stanley, J.M., Gray, J., Oliver, N., Faull, R.J. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities