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Gene Review

TCF21  -  transcription factor 21

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BHLHA23, Capsulin, Class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 23, Epicardin, POD1, ...
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Disease relevance of TCF21


Psychiatry related information on TCF21


High impact information on TCF21


Biological context of TCF21

  • Serum PCT increased after cardiac surgery with a peak on POD 1 (1.08 +/- 1.36) [9].
  • Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac filling pressure, and cardiac output were measured before induction of anaesthesia (baseline), 10 min after completion of ANH, before surgery, at the end of surgery and on the following morning (postoperative day 1; POD1) [10].
  • Differential library screening of an albumen gland cDNA library, Western blot analysis, protein expression, immunolocalization studies, comparative genomics, and secretion assays identified a major Aplysia californica albumen gland protein ('capsulin') that is localized to egg capsules and to the sheaths of the egg cordon [11].
  • Heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex function and pressure response to nitroglycerine and phenylephrine were assessed before operation, 4 h after the end of surgery (POD 0) and on the first and second postoperative days (POD 1 and POD 2) [12].
  • Aplysia capsulin is localized to egg capsules and egg cordon sheaths and shares sequence homology with Drosophila dec-1 gene products [11].

Anatomical context of TCF21

  • Also from 9.5 dpc, epicardin transcripts were seen in endocardial cushions of the atrioventricular canal and outflow tract, in skeletal myoblasts within branchial arches and in condensing mesenchyme of gut, kidney, urinary tract, gonads, spleen, and lung [13].
  • Pod-1 was also expressed in visceral glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) in the kidney, and its expression coincided with the onset of podocyte differentiation [14].
  • The central role played by bHLH factors in pathways for tissue determination in the embryo suggests a function for epicardin in specification of select mesodermal cell populations associated with heart, cranial skeletal muscle, gut, and urogenital system [13].
  • Given the likely expression of capsulin in smooth muscle cell progenitors, and significant sequence similarity through the bHLH domain, capsulin may be a functional ortholog of a Drosophila gene that is expressed in cells that give rise to the longitudinal visceral muscle [15].
  • We show that Tbx1 is expressed before capsulin, the first known marker of branchial arch 1 and 2 muscles [16].

Associations of TCF21 with chemical compounds

  • Ventilation was compared in the two groups by continuous pulse oximetry, by venous blood gases on postoperative day 1 (POD 1) and by CO2 response curves [17].
  • Recipients of primary cadaver allografts were randomized to receive either anti-Tac (20 mg q.d. x 10 days beginning POD 1) plus low-dose CsA (4 mg/kg/day), azathioprine (2 mg/kg/day), and prednisone (30 mg q.d.), or conventional triple therapy with CsA (8 mg/kg/day), azathioprine, and prednisone [18].
  • These antibiotics were administered as three formulations: two 500-mg capsulin every 6 hr for five doses, and one 1000-mg tablet of cephalexin every 6 hr for five doses [19].
  • In both groups, TT4 and TT3 were reduced below baseline values beginning with CPB and persisting for up to 5 days after CPB (p < 0.05), free T3 was reduced for up to 3 days after CPB (p < 0.05), mean serum rT3 was elevated on POD 1 and POD 3 (p < 0.05), and TSH remained unchanged [20].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The lower incidence of major/serious micturition problem in patients receiving sufentanil in ropivacaine thoracic epidural analgesia suggests that continuation of urinary drainage may not be necessary from POD 1 onwards [21].

Other interactions of TCF21

  • Cytokine levels were significantly greater in drain fluid than plasma on each postoperative day (POD); e.g., POD 1 : IL-6; drain fluid, median, 77,050 pg/mL (range 9,928-456,408); plasma, 241 pg/mL (22-1,333) [22].
  • METHODS: Plasma VEGF, sP-selectin, and vWf concentrations were measured in 14 patients with gastric cancer before operation and on postoperative day 1 (POD 1) [23].
  • In OS patients, the mean concentration of plasma MMP-9 was significantly higher on POD 1 than at pre-OP (p < 0.003) [24].
  • Both groups showed an enhanced fibrinolysis by elevation in t-PA antigen and D-dimer on POD 1, as expected when fibrinolysis occurs [25].
  • The PAI-1 levels increased on POD 1 in both groups, but severalfold more in Group 1 (compression devices) [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TCF21


  1. Epigenetic regulation of the tumor suppressor gene TCF21 on 6q23-q24 in lung and head and neck cancer. Smith, L.T., Lin, M., Brena, R.M., Lang, J.C., Schuller, D.E., Otterson, G.A., Morrison, C.D., Smiraglia, D.J., Plass, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential Effects of a Perioperative Hyperinsulinemic Normoglycemic Clamp on the Neurohumoral Stress Response during Coronary Artery Surgery. van Wezel, H.B., Zuurbier, C.J., de Jonge, E., van Dam, E.W., van Dijk, J., Endert, E., de Mol, B.A., Fliers, E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Sleeping characteristics of children undergoing outpatient elective surgery. Kain, Z.N., Mayes, L.C., Caldwell-Andrews, A.A., Alexander, G.M., Krivutza, D., Teague, B.A., Wang, S.M. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Balloons, beds, and breakdown. Effects of low-air loss therapy on the development of pressure ulcers in cardiovascular surgical patients with intra-aortic balloon pump support. Jesurum, J., Joseph, K., Davis, J.M., Suki, R. Critical care nursing clinics of North America. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcriptional control of lung morphogenesis. Maeda, Y., Davé, V., Whitsett, J.A. Physiol. Rev. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. The basic-helix-loop-helix protein pod1 is critically important for kidney and lung organogenesis. Quaggin, S.E., Schwartz, L., Cui, S., Igarashi, P., Deimling, J., Post, M., Rossant, J. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Interaction of two actin-binding proteins, synaptopodin and alpha-actinin-4, with the tight junction protein MAGI-1. Patrie, K.M., Drescher, A.J., Welihinda, A., Mundel, P., Margolis, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Sam68-like mammalian protein 2, identified by digital differential display as expressed by podocytes, is induced in proteinuria and involved in splice site selection of vascular endothelial growth factor. Cohen, C.D., Doran, P.P., Blattner, S.M., Merkle, M., Wang, G.Q., Schmid, H., Mathieson, P.W., Saleem, M.A., Henger, A., Rastaldi, M.P., Kretzler, M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Usefulness of procalcitonin for diagnosis of infection in cardiac surgical patients. Aouifi, A., Piriou, V., Bastien, O., Blanc, P., Bouvier, H., Evans, R., Célard, M., Vandenesch, F., Rousson, R., Lehot, J.J. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Plasma substitution effects of a new hydroxyethyl starch HES 130/0.4 compared with HES 200/0.5 during and after extended acute normovolaemic haemodilution. Ickx, B.E., Bepperling, F., Melot, C., Schulman, C., Van der Linden, P.J. British journal of anaesthesia. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Aplysia capsulin is localized to egg capsules and egg cordon sheaths and shares sequence homology with Drosophila dec-1 gene products. Cummins, S.F., Nagle, G.T. Peptides (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Influence of thoracic epidural analgesia on cardiovascular autonomic control after thoracic surgery. Licker, M., Spiliopoulos, A., Tschopp, J.M. British journal of anaesthesia. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. epicardin: A novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene expressed in epicardium, branchial arch myoblasts, and mesenchyme of developing lung, gut, kidney, and gonads. Robb, L., Mifsud, L., Hartley, L., Biben, C., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Jenkins, N.A., Harvey, R.P. Dev. Dyn. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Pod-1, a mesoderm-specific basic-helix-loop-helix protein expressed in mesenchymal and glomerular epithelial cells in the developing kidney. Quaggin, S.E., Vanden Heuvel, G.B., Igarashi, P. Mech. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning of capsulin, a basic helix-loop-helix factor expressed in progenitor cells of the pericardium and the coronary arteries. Hidai, H., Bardales, R., Goodwin, R., Quertermous, T., Quertermous, E.E. Mech. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Tbx1 regulation of myogenic differentiation in the limb and cranial mesoderm. Dastjerdi, A., Robson, L., Walker, R., Hadley, J., Zhang, Z., Rodriguez-Niedenführ, M., Ataliotis, P., Baldini, A., Scambler, P., Francis-West, P. Dev. Dyn. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Intravenous morphine in postoperative infants: intermittent bolus dosing versus targeted continuous infusions. Lynn, A.M., Nespeca, M.K., Bratton, S.L., Shen, D.D. Pain (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. A randomized prospective trial of anti-Tac monoclonal antibody in human renal transplantation. Kirkman, R.L., Shapiro, M.E., Carpenter, C.B., McKay, D.B., Milford, E.L., Ramos, E.L., Tilney, N.L., Waldmann, T.A., Zimmerman, C.E., Strom, T.B. Transplantation (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Pharmacokinetics of oral cephalosporins: cephradine cephalexin. Finkelstein, E., Quintiliani, R., Lee, R., Bracci, A., Nightingale, C.H. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature does not affect postoperative euthyroid sick syndrome? Thrush, D.N., Austin, D., Burdash, N. Chest (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of epidural sufentanil in ropivacaine on urinary retention in patients undergoing gastrectomy. Kim, J.Y., Lee, S.J., Koo, B.N., Noh, S.H., Kil, H.K., Kim, H.S., Ban, S.Y. British journal of anaesthesia. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Profiles of inflammatory cytokines following colorectal surgery: Relationship with wound healing and outcome. Baker, E.A., El-Gaddal, S., Williams, L., Leaper, D.J. Wound repair and regeneration : official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Surgery for gastric cancer increases plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and von Willebrand factor. Ikeda, M., Furukawa, H., Imamura, H., Shimizu, J., Ishida, H., Masutani, S., Tatsuta, M., Kawasaki, T., Satomi, T. Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Altered plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9/tissue metalloproteinase-1 concentration during the early postoperative period in patients with colorectal cancer. Kirman, I., Jain, S., Cekic, V., Belizon, A., Balik, E., Sylla, P., Arnell, T., Forde, K.A., Whelan, R.L. Surgical endoscopy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Prospective double-arm study of fibrinolysis in surgical patients. Kosir, M.A., Schmittinger, L., Barno-Winarski, L., Duddella, P., Pone, M., Perales, A., Lange, P., Brish, L.K., McGee, K., Beleski, K., Pawlak, J., Mammen, E., Sajahan, N.P., Kozol, R.A. J. Surg. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Nephrotoxicity following orthotopic liver transplantation. A comparison between cyclosporine and FK506. Platz, K.P., Mueller, A.R., Blumhardt, G., Bachmann, S., Bechstein, W.O., Kahl, A., Neuhaus, P. Transplantation (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Arterial ketone body ratio and glucose administration as an energy substrate in relation to changes in ketone body concentration after living-related liver transplantation in children. Takada, Y., Ozawa, K., Yamaoka, Y., Uemoto, S., Tanaka, A., Morimoto, T., Honda, K., Shimahara, Y., Mori, K., Inamoto, T. Transplantation (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Infrarenal aortic surgery with a 3-day hospital stay: A report on success with a clinical pathway. Podore, P.C., Throop, E.B. J. Vasc. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Endoscopic internal thoracic artery dissection leads to significant reduction of pain after minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Bucerius, J., Metz, S., Walther, T., Falk, V., Doll, N., Noack, F., Holzhey, D., Diegeler, A., Mohr, F.W. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
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