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Gene Review

TCEAL1  -  transcription elongation factor A (SII)...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Nuclear phosphoprotein p21/SIIR, P21, SIIR, TCEA-like protein 1, Transcription elongation factor A protein-like 1, ...
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Disease relevance of TCEAL1


Psychiatry related information on TCEAL1


High impact information on TCEAL1

  • This study provides experimental evidence that telomere dysfunction induces p21-dependent checkpoints in vivo that can limit longevity at the organismal level [7].
  • Moreover, deletion of p21 rescued proliferation of intestinal progenitor cells and improved the repopulation capacity and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells from mice with dysfunctional telomeres [7].
  • In these mice, apoptotic responses remained intact, and p21 deletion did not accelerate chromosomal instability or cancer formation [7].
  • We examined the mechanism responsible for the degradation of p21, a negative regulator of the cell division cycle [8].
  • Although wild-type p21 is more abundantly ubiquitinylated than p21(K0) mutant due to the presence of internal lysine residues, their rates of proteolysis are indistinguishable [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of TCEAL1


Biological context of TCEAL1


Anatomical context of TCEAL1

  • Tissue-specific expression patterns of TCEAL1 by Northern blot analysis showed the presence of an approximately 1.2-kb transcript in all normal human tissues examined, and heart and skeletal muscle contained an additional transcript of approximately 7 kb [14].
  • Proliferation of chicken embryo fibroblasts transfected with an infectious molecular clone of RSV was diminished by p21 expression, which also resulted in fewer transformed foci [2].
  • To explore the possibility that p21 plays a role in transcriptional regulation in vivo, we tested the effect of p21 expression on the synthesis of reporter chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in transfected COS-1 cells [2].
  • PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids with chromosome 3 translocations and FISH studies utilizing a human YAC clone containing the SII gene further refine the map position of this locus to human chromosome 3p22 --> p21 [19].
  • P21 and much less frequently p53 proteins were mainly detected in a part of the subcapsular cortical epithelial cells [20].

Associations of TCEAL1 with chemical compounds

  • Four serine pairs, all displaying the Arg/Lys-Ser-Ser motif typical of phosphorylation sites, are present in p21/SIIR between positions 31 and 48 [15].
  • After 1 microM cisplatin treatment, Xrel3 had an anti-apoptotic effect, based on significantly lower levels of apoptotic proteins, including caspase-8, caspase-3 and p21 [21].
  • Polysaccharide peptide mediates apoptosis by up-regulating p21 gene and down-regulating cyclin D1 gene [22].
  • Cdk inhibition requires a sequence of approximately 60 amino acids within the p21 NH2 terminus [23].
  • RFC in the ATPgammaS-activated complex was no longer displaced from the DNA by p21 [24].

Other interactions of TCEAL1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TCEAL1


  1. Differential expression of TCEAL1 in esophageal cancers by custom cDNA microarray analysis. Makino, H., Tajiri, T., Miyashita, M., Sasajima, K., Anbazhagan, R., Johnston, J., Gabrielson, E. Dis. Esophagus (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Down-regulation of Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat promoter activity by a HeLa cell basic protein. Yeh, C.H., Shatkin, A.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Ethanol decreases expression of p21 and increases hyperphosphorylated pRb in cell lines of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Hager, G., Formanek, M., Gedlicka, C., Knerer, B., Kornfehl, J. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Concerted overexpression of the genes encoding p21 and cyclin D1 is associated with growth inhibition and differentiation in various carcinomas. de Jong, J.S., van Diest, P.J., Michalides, R.J., Baak, J.P. MP, Mol. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. The role of cyclin D2 and p21/waf1 in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 infected cells. Kehn, K., Deng, L., de la Fuente, C., Strouss, K., Wu, K., Maddukuri, A., Baylor, S., Rufner, R., Pumfery, A., Bottazzi, M.E., Kashanchi, F. Retrovirology (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Ontogeny of analgesia elicited by non-nutritive suckling in acute and persistent neonatal rat pain models. Anseloni, V., Ren, K., Dubner, R., Ennis, M. Pain (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Cdkn1a deletion improves stem cell function and lifespan of mice with dysfunctional telomeres without accelerating cancer formation. Choudhury, A.R., Ju, Z., Djojosubroto, M.W., Schienke, A., Lechel, A., Schaetzlein, S., Jiang, H., Stepczynska, A., Wang, C., Buer, J., Lee, H.W., von Zglinicki, T., Ganser, A., Schirmacher, P., Nakauchi, H., Rudolph, K.L. Nat. Genet. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Proteasome-mediated degradation of p21 via N-terminal ubiquitinylation. Bloom, J., Amador, V., Bartolini, F., DeMartino, G., Pagano, M. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I and estrogen cooperate to stimulate cyclin E-Cdk2 activation and cell Cycle progression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells through differential regulation of cyclin E and p21(WAF1/Cip1). Lai, A., Sarcevic, B., Prall, O.W., Sutherland, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. p21-dependent inhibition of colon cancer cell growth by mevastatin is independent of inhibition of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Ukomadu, C., Dutta, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Resveratrol causes WAF-1/p21-mediated G(1)-phase arrest of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Ahmad, N., Adhami, V.M., Afaq, F., Feyes, D.K., Mukhtar, H. Clin. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Artepillin C in Brazilian propolis induces G(0)/G(1) arrest via stimulation of Cip1/p21 expression in human colon cancer cells. Shimizu, K., Das, S.K., Hashimoto, T., Sowa, Y., Yoshida, T., Sakai, T., Matsuura, Y., Kanazawa, K. Mol. Carcinog. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Proliferation arrest and induction of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 by depleting the calcium store in cultured C6 glioma cells. Chen, Y.J., Lin, J.K., Lin-Shiau, S.Y. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Genomic structure and chromosomal localization of TCEAL1, a human gene encoding the nuclear phosphoprotein p21/SIIR. Pillutla, R.C., Shimamoto, A., Furuichi, Y., Shatkin, A.J. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. The Ser36-Ser37 pair in HeLa nuclear protein p21/SIIR mediates Ser/Thr phosphorylation and is essential for Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat repression. Yeh, C.H., Zong, W.X., Shatkin, A.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. A HeLa-cell-encoded p21 is homologous to transcription elongation factor SII. Yeh, C.H., Shatkin, A.J. Gene (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Fibroblast growth factor-10 prevents H(2)O(2)-induced cell cycle arrest by regulation of G1 cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases. Upadhyay, D., Chang, W., Wei, K., Gao, M., Rosen, G.D. FEBS Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. A novel organoselenium compound induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. Shi, C., Yu, L., Yang, F., Yan, J., Zeng, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Transcription elongation factor SII (TCEA) maps to human chromosome 3p22 --> p21.3. DiMarco, S.P., Glover, T.W., Miller, D.E., Reines, D., Warren, S.T. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p21/waf1, rb, p16, cyclin D1, p27, Ki67, cyclin A, cyclin B1, bcl2, bax and bak proteins and apoptotic index in normal thymus. Kanavaros, P., Stefanaki, K., Rontogianni, D., Papalazarou, D., Sgantzos, M., Arvanitis, D., Vamvouka, C., Gorgoulis, V., Siatitsas, I., Agnantis, N.J., Bai, M. Histol. Histopathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Dual apoptotic effect of Xrel3 c-Rel/NF-kappaB homolog in human cervical cancer cells. Shehata, M., Shehata, M., Shehata, F., Pater, A. Cell Biol. Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Polysaccharide peptide mediates apoptosis by up-regulating p21 gene and down-regulating cyclin D1 gene. Chow, L.W., Lo, C.S., Loo, W.T., Hu, X.C., Sham, J.S. Am. J. Chin. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Structural studies of p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1 in the free and Cdk2-bound state: conformational disorder mediates binding diversity. Kriwacki, R.W., Hengst, L., Tennant, L., Reed, S.I., Wright, P.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 modulates the DNA primer-template recognition complex. Waga, S., Stillman, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential diagnosis of laryngeal spindle cell carcinoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor - report of two cases with similar morphology. Völker, H.U., Scheich, M., Höller, S., Ströbel, P., Hagen, R., Müller-Hermelink, H.K., Eck, M. Diagnostic pathology (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibition of G1 cyclin-dependent kinase activity during growth arrest of human breast carcinoma cells by prostaglandin A2. Gorospe, M., Liu, Y., Xu, Q., Chrest, F.J., Holbrook, N.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of G1 phase regulators in MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line. Merli, M., Benassi, M.S., Gamberi, G., Ragazzini, P., Sollazzo, M.R., Molendini, L., Magagnoli, G., Ferrari, C., Maltarello, M.C., Picci, P. Int. J. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Photodynamic therapy results in induction of WAF1/CIP1/P21 leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Ahmad, N., Feyes, D.K., Agarwal, R., Mukhtar, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
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