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Chemical Compound Review

Gensigen     2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid

Synonyms: Gensigon, Gentasol, Gentidol, Gentisan, Gentisod, ...
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Disease relevance of Gensigen


High impact information on Gensigen


Chemical compound and disease context of Gensigen


Biological context of Gensigen

  • The acquisition of the gentisate operon may represent a special adaptation to meet carbon source requirements under conditions of environmental stress and may provide a selective advantage for enterohaemorrhagic E. coli relative to their non-pathogenic counterparts [2].
  • Identity of GU in urine from two aspirin-treated patients was confirmed by TLC and mass spectrometric analysis, and hydrolysis of the compound from one patient yielded glycine and gentisic acid [15].
  • A novel on-plate microextraction approach using concentrated MALDI matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid with a mixture of acetone and water as the solvent has been developed to allow the detection of trace-level gene expression products [16].
  • Gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase showed broad substrate specificity and attacked a range of halogen- and alkyl-substituted gentisic acids [13].
  • By genome-wide data mining, a gene cluster designated ncg12918-ncg12923 was proposed to encode putative proteins involved in gentisate/3-hydroxybenzoate pathway [17].

Anatomical context of Gensigen


Associations of Gensigen with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Gensigen


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gensigen


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  2. Structural and biochemical characterization of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase from Escherichia coli O157:H7. Adams, M.A., Singh, V.K., Keller, B.O., Jia, Z. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Use of salicylate as a probe for .OH formation in isolated ischemic rat hearts. Powell, S.R., Hall, D. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Influence of nutritional status on the pharmacokinetics of acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolites in children with autoimmune disease. Lares-Asseff, I., Flores-Pérez, J., Juárez-Olguín, H., Ramírez-Lacayo, M., Loredo-Abdalá, A., Carbajal-Rodríguez, L. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Gold-enhanced biomolecular surface imaging of cells and tissue by SIMS and MALDI mass spectrometry. Altelaar, A.F., Klinkert, I., Jalink, K., de Lange, R.P., Adan, R.A., Heeren, R.M., Piersma, S.R. Anal. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Mitochondrial oxidative stress after carbon monoxide hypoxia in the rat brain. Zhang, J., Piantadosi, C.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Quantification of hydroxyl radical and its lack of relevance to myocardial injury during early reperfusion after graded ischemia in rat hearts. Takemura, G., Onodera, T., Ashraf, M. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. The Gene ncgl2918 Encodes a Novel Maleylpyruvate Isomerase That Needs Mycothiol as Cofactor and Links Mycothiol Biosynthesis and Gentisate Assimilation in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Feng, J., Che, Y., Milse, J., Yin, Y.J., Liu, L., Rückert, C., Shen, X.H., Qi, S.W., Kalinowski, J., Liu, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas. Substrate coordination to active site Fe2+ and mechanism of turnover. Harpel, M.R., Lipscomb, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Bacterial metabolism of 5-aminosalicylic acid. Initial ring cleavage. Stolz, A., Nörtemann, B., Knackmuss, H.J. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. A gene cluster encoding steps in conversion of naphthalene to gentisate in Pseudomonas sp. strain U2. Fuenmayor, S.L., Wild, M., Boyes, A.L., Williams, P.A. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation of Alcaligenes sp. strain L6 at low oxygen concentrations and degradation of 3-chlorobenzoate via a pathway not involving (chloro)catechols. Krooneman, J., Wieringa, E.B., Moore, E.R., Gerritse, J., Prins, R.A., Gottschal, J.C. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Purification and properties of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase from Moraxella osloensis. Crawford, R.L., Hutton, S.W., Chapman, P.J. J. Bacteriol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. Purification and characterization of 1-naphthol-2-hydroxylase from carbaryl-degrading pseudomonas strain c4. Swetha, V.P., Basu, A., Phale, P.S. J. Bacteriol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Gentisuric acid: metabolic formation in animals and identification as a metabolite of aspirin in man. Wilson, J.T., Howell, R.L., Holladay, M.W., Brilis, G.M., Chrastil, J., Watson, J.T., Taber, D.F. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Peptide profiling of cells with multiple gene products: combining immunochemistry and MALDI mass spectrometry with on-plate microextraction. Li, L., Romanova, E.V., Rubakhin, S.S., Alexeeva, V., Weiss, K.R., Vilim, F.S., Sweedler, J.V. Anal. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Functional identification of novel genes involved in the glutathione-independent gentisate pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Shen, X.H., Jiang, C.Y., Huang, Y., Liu, Z.P., Liu, S.J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Direct molecular imaging of Lymnaea stagnalis nervous tissue at subcellular spatial resolution by mass spectrometry. Altelaar, A.F., van Minnen, J., Jiménez, C.R., Heeren, R.M., Piersma, S.R. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. In vitro comparison of HMPAO and gentisic acid for labelling leukocytes with 99mTc. Ecclestone, M., Proulx, A., Ballinger, J.R., Gerson, B., Reid, R.H., Gulenchyn, K.Y. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibitors of mammalian melanocyte tyrosinase: in vitro comparisons of alkyl esters of gentisic acid with other putative inhibitors. Curto, E.V., Kwong, C., Hermersdörfer, H., Glatt, H., Santis, C., Virador, V., Hearing, V.J., Dooley, T.P. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Gentisic acid: an aspirin metabolite with multiple effects on human blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Lorico, A., Masturzo, P., Villa, S., Salmona, M., Semeraro, N., de Gaetano, G. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. 5-Aminosalicylate: oxidation by activated leukocytes and protection of cultured cells from oxidative damage. Dull, B.J., Salata, K., Van Langenhove, A., Goldman, P. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Disposition of and clinical response to salicylates in patients with rheumatoid disease. Günsberg, M., Bochner, F., Graham, G., Imhoff, D., Parsons, G., Cham, B. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Fragmentation characteristics of neutral N-linked glycans using a MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometer. Stephens, E., Maslen, S.L., Green, L.G., Williams, D.H. Anal. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Analysis of modified oligonucleotides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Stemmler, E.A., Buchanan, M.V., Hurst, G.B., Hettich, R.L. Anal. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. In situ MALDI-TOF MS regional analysis of neutral phospholipids in lens tissue. Rujoi, M., Estrada, R., Yappert, M.C. Anal. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparative mapping of recombinant proteins and glycoproteins by plasma desorption and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Tsarbopoulos, A., Karas, M., Strupat, K., Pramanik, B.N., Nagabhushan, T.L., Hillenkamp, F. Anal. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Salicylate promotes myeloperoxidase-initiated LDL oxidation: antagonization by its metabolite gentisic acid. Hermann, M., Kapiotis, S., Hofbauer, R., Seelos, C., Held, I., Gmeiner, B. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Hydroxylation of salicylate by activated neutrophils. Davis, W.B., Mohammed, B.S., Mays, D.C., She, Z.W., Mohammed, J.R., Husney, R.M., Sagone, A.L. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. The naphthalene catabolic (nag) genes of Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2: evolutionary implications for two gene clusters and novel regulatory control. Jeon, C.O., Park, M., Ro, H.S., Park, W., Madsen, E.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. The BH1999 protein of Bacillus halodurans C-125 is gentisyl-coenzyme A thioesterase. Zhuang, Z., Song, F., Takami, H., Dunaway-Mariano, D. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Novel pathway of salicylate degradation by Streptomyces sp. strain WA46. Ishiyama, D., Vujaklija, D., Davies, J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Simultaneous measurement of salicylate hydroxylation and glutamate release in the penumbral cortex following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Morimoto, T., Globus, M.Y., Busto, R., Martinez, E., Ginsberg, M.D. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Analysis of Intact Tissue by Intermediate-Pressure MALDI on a Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer. Garrett, T.J., Yost, R.A. Anal. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Localization of analyte molecules in MALDI preparations by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Horneffer, V., Forsmann, A., Strupat, K., Hillenkamp, F., Kubitscheck, U. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Accumulation of gentisic acid as associated with systemic infections but not with the hypersensitive response in plant-pathogen interactions. Bellés, J.M., Garro, R., Pallás, V., Fayos, J., Rodrigo, I., Conejero, V. Planta (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Replacement of tyrosine 181 by phenylalanine in gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase I from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIMB 9867 enhances catalytic activities. Tan, C.L., Yeo, C.C., Khoo, H.E., Poh, C.L. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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