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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Areca


Psychiatry related information on Areca


High impact information on Areca


Chemical compound and disease context of Areca


Biological context of Areca


Anatomical context of Areca


Associations of Areca with chemical compounds

  • Comparisons of the areca nut-related N-nitroso compounds and their precursor alkaloids, at concentrations up to 5 mM, indicate that 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde is the most potent on a molar basis to decrease both survival and thiol content and to cause significant formation of DNA single strand breaks [22].
  • Betel nut (Areca catechu) consumption and the induction of glucose intolerance in adult CD1 mice and in their F1 and F2 offspring [23].
  • Effects of betel nut and fermented fish on the thiamin status of northeastern Thais [24].
  • Areca nut (AN), a BQ component, modulates arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, which is crucial for platelet function [25].
  • Abstention from both betel nut chewing and raw fermented fish consumption resulted in a significant reduction of thiamin pyrophosphate effect [24].

Gene context of Areca

  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that COX-2 expression is significantly up-regulated in OSF tissues from areca quid chewers and arecoline may among other constituents be responsible for the enhanced COX-2 expression in vivo [26].
  • However, the staining rate of p53 in OLP was higher in areca quid (AQ) chewers compared to abstainers (P = .001), and the mean PCNA LI in atrophic cases was higher than that in hypertrophic cases (P = .029) [27].
  • To verify whether arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, could affect TIMP or MMP production by human BMFs, Western blots and gelatine zymography were used [28].
  • Thus, IL-8 may be a vital participant in the cascade of interacting cytokines during smoking and areca quid chewing, inducing inflammation in oral cancer [29].
  • A significant correlation was observed between MDM2 protein and p53 expression in 38 cases with an areca quid (AQ) chewing habit (P=0.032) [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Areca


  1. Polymorphism in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) promoter is related to the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring on male areca chewers. Chang, K.W., Lee, T.C., Yeh, W.I., Chung, M.Y., Liu, C.J., Chi, L.Y., Lin, S.C. Br. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Carcinogenicity examination of betel quid. II. Effect of vitamin A deficiency on rats fed semipurified diet containing betel nut and calcium hydroxide. Tanaka, T., Mori, H., Fujii, M., Takahashi, M., Hirono, I. Nutrition and cancer. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibition of the migration, attachment, spreading, growth and collagen synthesis of human gingival fibroblasts by arecoline, a major areca alkaloid, in vitro. Jeng, J.H., Lan, W.H., Hahn, L.J., Hsieh, C.C., Kuo, M.Y. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Incidence rates of oral cancer and oral pre-cancerous lesions in a 6-year follow-up study of a Taiwanese aboriginal community. Yang, Y.H., Chen, C.H., Chang, J.S., Lin, C.C., Cheng, T.C., Shieh, T.Y. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Lower absorption of cholesteryl oleate in rats supplemented with Areca catechu L. extract. Jeon, S.M., Kim, H.S., Lee, T.G., Ryu, S.H., Suh, P.G., Byun, S.J., Park, Y.B., Choi, M.S. Ann. Nutr. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The XRCC1 399Gln polymorphism and the frequency of p53 mutations in Taiwanese oral squamous cell carcinomas. Hsieh, L.L., Chien, H.T., Chen, I.H., Liao, C.T., Wang, H.M., Jung, S.M., Wang, P.F., Chang, J.T., Chen, M.C., Cheng, A.J. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Betel quid and reaction time. Stricherz, M.E., Pratt, P. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. Betel nut constituents as inhibitors of gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake. Johnston, G.A., Krogsgaard-Larsen, P., Stephanson, A. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Carcinogenicity of betel quid. III. Enhancement of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide- and N-2-fluorenylacetamide-induced carcinogenesis in rats by subsequent administration of betel nut. Tanaka, T., Kuniyasu, T., Shima, H., Sugie, S., Mori, H., Takahashi, M., Hirono, I. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibitory effect of betel nut extracts on endogenous nitrosation in humans. Stich, H.F., Ohshima, H., Pignatelli, B., Michelon, J., Bartsch, H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Betel-nut chewing and asthma. Taylor, R.F., al-Jarad, N., John, L.M., Conroy, D.M., Barnes, N.C. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Increased waist size and weight in relation to consumption of Areca catechu (betel-nut); a risk factor for increased glycaemia in Asians in east London. Mannan, N., Boucher, B.J., Evans, S.J. Br. J. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Quantitative analysis of areca catechu (betel) nut flavanols (tannins) in relation to oral submucous fibrosis. Noor Awang, M. Dental journal of Malaysia. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Serum antioxidant vitamin levels of people in Khon Kaen, northeastern Thailand. Sripanidkulchai, B., Vaikrutta, S., Sriamporn, S., Vatanasapt, P., Sripanidkulchai, K., Sirisangtrakul, W. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. The induction of prostaglandin E2 production, interleukin-6 production, cell cycle arrest, and cytotoxicity in primary oral keratinocytes and KB cancer cells by areca nut ingredients is differentially regulated by MEK/ERK activation. Chang, M.C., Wu, H.L., Lee, J.J., Lee, P.H., Chang, H.H., Hahn, L.J., Lin, B.R., Chen, Y.J., Jeng, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Tumorigenicity study in Syrian hamsters fed areca nut together with nitrite. Ernst, H., Ohshima, H., Bartsch, H., Mohr, U., Reichart, P. Carcinogenesis (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of lime composition on the formation of reactive oxygen species from areca nut extract in vitro. Nair, U.J., Friesen, M., Richard, I., MacLennan, R., Thomas, S., Bartsch, H. Carcinogenesis (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. The associations of p53 overexpression with p53 codon 72 genetic polymorphism in esophageal cancer. Lee, J.M., Shun, C.T., Wu, M.T., Chen, Y.Y., Yang, S.Y., Hung, H.I., Chen, J.S., Hsu, H.H., Huang, P.M., Kuo, S.W., Lee, Y.C. Mutat. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Transplacental micronucleus inducing ability of arecoline, a betel nut alkaloid, in mice. Sinha, A., Rao, A.R. Mutat. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Relationship between cellular levels of beta-carotene and sensitivity to genotoxic agents. Stich, H.F., Dunn, B.P. Int. J. Cancer (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of the Areca nut constituents arecaidine and guvacine on the action of GABA in the cat central nervous system. Lodge, D., Johnston, G.A., Curtis, D.R., Brand, S.J. Brain Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of areca nut-related compounds in cultured human buccal epithelial cells. Sundqvist, K., Liu, Y., Nair, J., Bartsch, H., Arvidson, K., Grafström, R.C. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Betel nut (Areca catechu) consumption and the induction of glucose intolerance in adult CD1 mice and in their F1 and F2 offspring. Boucher, B.J., Ewen, S.W., Stowers, J.M. Diabetologia (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of betel nut and fermented fish on the thiamin status of northeastern Thais. Vimokesant, S.L., Hilker, D.M., Nakornchai, S., Rungruangsak, K., Dhanamitta, S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betel leaf ingredients: roles of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase. Jeng, J.H., Chen, S.Y., Liao, C.H., Tung, Y.Y., Lin, B.R., Hahn, L.J., Chang, M.C. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. The up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline: a possible role in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. Tsai, C.H., Chou, M.Y., Chang, Y.C. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Higher expressions of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in atrophic oral lichen planus and patients with areca quid chewing. Lee, J.J., Kuo, M.Y., Cheng, S.J., Chiang, C.P., Jeng, J.H., Chang, H.H., Kuo, Y.S., Lan, W.H., Kok, S.H. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression and inhibition of gelatinase A activity in buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline as possible mechanisms for oral submucous fibrosis. Chang, Y.C., Yang, S.F., Tai, K.W., Chou, M.Y., Hsieh, Y.S. Oral Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Interleukin-8 secretion by cultured oral epidermoid carcinoma cells induced with nicotine and/or arecoline treatments. Cheng, Y.A., Shiue, L.F., Yu, H.S., Hsieh, T.Y., Tsai, C.C. The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. MDM2 expression in areca quid chewing-associated oral squamous cell carcinomas in Taiwan. Huang, J.S., Ho, T.J., Chiang, C.P., Kok, S.H., Kuo, Y.S., Kuo, M.Y. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Determination of arecoline (areca nut alkaloid) and nicotine in hair by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray quadrupole mass spectrometry. Marchei, E., Durgbanshi, A., Rossi, S., Garcia-Algar, O., Zuccaro, P., Pichini, S. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Absorption of intestinal free cholesterol is lowered by supplementation of Areca catechu L. extract in rats. Park, Y.B., Jeon, S.M., Byun, S.J., Kim, H.S., Choi, M.S. Life Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Antihypertensive substance in seeds of Areca catechu L. Inokuchi, J., Okabe, H., Yamauchi, T., Nagamatsu, A., Nonaka, G., Nishioka, I. Life Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. The functional (-1171 5A-->6A) polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase 3 gene as a risk factor for oral submucous fibrosis among male areca users. Tu, H.F., Liu, C.J., Chang, C.S., Lui, M.T., Kao, S.Y., Chang, C.P., Liu, T.Y. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Cancer in Bangladesh: a model for some problems and proposed solutions in the Third World. Carr, B.I. Cancer Detect. Prev. (1986) [Pubmed]
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