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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Tracheotomy


High impact information on Tracheotomy

  • We anesthetized 16 rabbits (halothane, 0.8%) and mechanically ventilated them through a tracheotomy [6].
  • Upper airway humidification, measured from the moisture gained by dry air passed through the upper airways in mice breathing through a tracheotomy, decreased from 91 to 50% with increasing ventilation from 20 to 220 ml/min, and reduced by 3-5% in AQP3/AQP4 knockout mice [7].
  • 2. In cats anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone and breathing spontaneously following tracheotomy, the left sciatic and femoral nerves were electrically stimulated at 3 Hz for 20 min to induce muscle contraction, and hindlimb blood flow was measured with a flow probe [8].
  • After tracheotomy, median (25th, 75th percentiles) fentanyl and midazolam administration decreased from 866 (191, 1672) to 71 (3, 426) microg/( and from 44 (16, 128) to 7 (1, 42) mg/( (p < .001), respectively [9].
  • Patients' sedation levels (according to the Riker's 7-level sedation-agitation score) and intravenous (fentanyl and midazolam) and oral (clorazepate and haloperidol) sedative administration were measured daily during the 7 days before and after tracheotomy [9].

Biological context of Tracheotomy


Anatomical context of Tracheotomy


Associations of Tracheotomy with chemical compounds

  • We performed tracheotomies on 12 mongrel dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and found that lung inflation augmented the activity of the levator veli palatini muscle (LVP) [15].
  • METHODS: In rats anesthetized with halothane, nitrous oxide, and oxygen, tracheotomy was performed and the lungs were mechanically ventilated [16].
  • After 1 wk of recovery, the animals underwent tracheotomy and were subjected to intravenous infusions of endotoxin 10 ng x kg-1 x min-1 and isotonic saline 3 mL x kg-1 x hr-1 for 8 hrs [17].
  • After a tracheotomy had been performed, the sheep were randomized into sham, control, and gentamicin groups (n = 6 each) [18].
  • Complication rates included the following: conservative monitoring (none), corticosteroid (18%), tracheotomy (none), CO2 laser (12%), interferon (20%), and laryngotracheoplasty (20%) [19].

Gene context of Tracheotomy

  • Sixteen patients used part-time NPPV for 17.5 +/- 13.0 months (maximum, 25 months), then full-time NPPV for 14.1 +/- 12.6 months (maximum, 40 months) before undergoing tracheotomy [20].
  • Late complications included symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (60%), anastomotic strictures (40%), and severe tracheomalacia requiring long-term tracheotomy (20%) [21].
  • High grade obstruction, involvement of the soft tissue of the neck, and tracheal deviation can make intubation and tracheotomy hazardous, if not impossible [22].
  • Analysis by Fisher's Exact Test revealed patients with a syndromic diagnosis to have a significantly higher rate for tracheotomies and gastrostomy tube placement (P = .041, and P = .0004, respectively) [23].
  • Five underwent regular tracheotomy (RT) and six underwent SPT [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tracheotomy

  • The coronal (lateral) diameter and the cross-sectional area at the level of the stoma were 4.7 mm (SEM, 0.23 mm) and 41 mm2 (SEM, 3.0 mm2) after open tracheotomy, versus 8.1 mm (SEM, 0.13 mm) and 58 mm2 (SEM, 4.6 mm2) after PDT (P < .001 and P = .023, respectively) [25].
  • CONCLUSION: This limited experience on the endoscopic repair of extrathoracic LTEC shows that a minimally invasive approach sparing the need for postoperative intubation or tracheotomy is feasible and safe if modern technology (ultrapulse CO2 laser, endoscopic suturing, and postoperative use of CPAP in the intensive care unit) is available [26].
  • Prognostic value of Glasgow Coma Scale for tracheotomy in head injured patients [27].
  • A modified occlusal splint to avoid tracheotomy for total midface osteotomies [28].
  • Following craniotomy and tracheotomy for artificial ventilation, surface PO2 of the cerebro-cortex and cerebral blood flow via the inhalatory hydrogen clearance technique were measured [29].


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  2. Anterior cervical instrumentation enhances fusion rates in multilevel reconstruction in smokers. Bose, B. Journal of spinal disorders. (2001) [Pubmed]
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  7. Role of aquaporin water channels in airway fluid transport, humidification, and surface liquid hydration. Song, Y., Jayaraman, S., Yang, B., Matthay, M.A., Verkman, A.S. J. Gen. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. The role of the A(2A) adenosine receptor subtype in functional hyperaemia in the hindlimb of anaesthetized cats. Poucher, S.M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Impact of tracheotomy on sedative administration, sedation level, and comfort of mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients. Nieszkowska, A., Combes, A., Luyt, C.E., Ksibi, H., Trouillet, J.L., Gibert, C., Chastre, J. Crit. Care Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Dose-dependent increases in the renal sympathetic nerve activity during rapid increase in isoflurane concentration in intact, lower airway-deafferented, and baroreceptor-deafferented rabbits. Okamoto, H., Hoka, S., Kawasaki, T., Okuyama, T., Takahashi, S. Anesthesiology (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Coordination between palatal and laryngeal muscle activities in response to rebreathing and lung inflation. Koizumi, H., Kogo, M., Matsuya, T. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Emergency cricothyroidotomy in the patient with massive neck swelling. Part 2: Clinical aspects. Simon, R.R., Brenner, B.E., Rosen, M.A. Crit. Care Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb responses to olfactory and noxious stimulation in urethane anaesthetized rats. Heale, V.R., Vanderwolf, C.H. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. NO causes perinatal pulmonary vasodilation through K+-channel activation and intracellular Ca2+ release. Saqueton, C.B., Miller, R.B., Porter, V.A., Milla, C.E., Cornfield, D.N. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of lung inflation on levator veli palatini muscle activity. Koizumi, H., Kogo, M., Matsuya, T. J. Dent. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Surfactant treatment of respiratory failure induced by hydrochloric acid aspiration in rats. Eijking, E.P., Gommers, D., So, K.L., Vergeer, M., Lachmann, B. Anesthesiology (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Combination of intravenously infused methylene blue and inhaled nitric oxide ameliorates endotoxin-induced lung injury in awake sheep. Kirov, M.Y., Evgenov, O.V., Bjertnaes, L.J. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Gentamicin improves hemodynamics in ovine septic shock after smoke inhalation injury. Maybauer, M.O., Maybauer, D.M., Traber, L.D., Westphal, M., Enkhbaatar, P., Morita, N., Jodoin, J.M., Heggers, J.P., Herndon, D.N., Traber, D.L. Shock (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. The biology and management of subglottic hemangioma: past, present, future. Rahbar, R., Nicollas, R., Roger, G., Triglia, J.M., Garabedian, E.N., McGill, T.J., Healy, G.B. Laryngoscope (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: prolongation of life by noninvasive respiratory AIDS. Bach, J.R. Chest (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Circular esophagomyotomy for primary repair of long-gap esophageal atresia. Ricketts, R.R., Luck, S.R., Raffensperger, J.G. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Airway obstruction due to lymphoma of the larynx and trachea. Hessan, H., Houck, J., Harvey, H. Laryngoscope (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Pierre Robin sequences: secondary respiratory difficulties and intrinsic feeding abnormalities. Cruz, M.J., Kerschner, J.E., Beste, D.J., Conley, S.F. Laryngoscope (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. "Starplasty" prevents tracheotomy complications in infants. Eliashar, R., Gross, M., Attal, P., Hocwald, E., Sichel, J.Y. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Percutaneous dilatational versus conventional open tracheotomy in a growing animal: a study in goats. van Heurn, L.W., van den Bogaard, A.E., Kootstra, G., Brink, P.R. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Endoscopic laryngotracheal cleft repair without tracheotomy or intubation. Sandu, K., Monnier, P. Laryngoscope (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Prognostic value of Glasgow Coma Scale for tracheotomy in head injured patients. Lajtman, Z., Gasparović, S. Acta medica Croatica : c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. A modified occlusal splint to avoid tracheotomy for total midface osteotomies. Posnick, J.C., Nakano, P., Taylor, M. Annals of plastic surgery. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Cerebrocortical oxygen supply of sclerotic rats and acute diltiazem therapy. Metzger, H.P., Pante, H., Heuber-Metzger, S. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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