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Chemical Compound Review

D-NAME     methyl(2R)-2-amino-5-[(amino- nitramido...

Synonyms: AmbotzHAA5760, Lopac-N-5751, ZINC19594743, AR-1J6502, LS-183875, ...
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Disease relevance of D-NAME

  • Catalytically active factor Xa induced hypotension in rats and vasorelaxation in the isolated rat mesentery, which was blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) but not by D-NAME [1].
  • Both L-NAME (100 mg/kg IV, P < .05) and 7-NI (10 mg/kg IV, P < .05) caused an L-arginine (100 mg/kg IV, P < .01)-reversible inhibition of neurogenic edema as measured by 125I-albumin accumulation, whereas D-NAME (inactive enantiomer of L-NAME) and 6-aminoindazole (structurally similar to 7-NI) were without inhibitory effect [2].
  • To further investigate the mechanisms, postischemic skin hyperemia was measured before and after intradermal injection of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME and its inactive isoform D-NAME (0.5 micromol/10 microl each) [3].
  • No significant difference in bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory cell profiles was noted between L-NAME- and D-NAME-treated mice with Klebsiella pneumonia [4].
  • Animals chronically treated with L-NAME (but not D-NAME) for 2 and 4 weeks developed hypertension to the same extent as 2K-1C rats [5].

Psychiatry related information on D-NAME

  • In the groups of rats pretreated with saline (n = 5), 100 mg/kg D-NAME (n = 6), 10 (n = 5) or 25 (n = 6) mg/kg L-NAME, this thermal injury induced a transient reduction in the reaction time that was 54-59% of the baseline value [6].
  • Following D-NAME administration, DA increased during copulation, while L-NAME prevented this increase [7].
  • Although cocaine increased locomotor activity, treatment with L- or D-NAME alone did not alter activity levels [8].

High impact information on D-NAME

  • L-NAME (but not D-NAME) significantly inhibited the eosinophil migration induced by both fMLP (54% reduction for 1.0 mM; P < 0.05) and LTB4 (61% reduction for 1.0 mM; P < 0.05) [9].
  • A parallel process of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent NADPH oxidation was observed which was also inhibited by L-NAME but not D-NAME [10].
  • In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME [11].
  • The inhibition of endogenous NO formation by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (1 mmol/L) but not its inactive enantiomer D-NAME (1 mmol/L) inhibited endothelial cell sprouting from the scratched edge of the cultured bovine aortic endothelial cell monolayer [12].
  • L-NAME (5 mM) completely prevented the ET-1-induced reduction in J(Cl), whereas D-NAME did not [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of D-NAME

  • L-NAME dose-dependently inhibited 2-DG-induced eating in non-food-deprived rats, although the inactive isomer D-NAME on 2-DG-induced hyperphagia were inhibited by co-administration of L-arginine [14].

Biological context of D-NAME

  • The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF [11].
  • 4. High doses of L-NAME (37.5-600 mg kg-1) but not D-NAME (75 mg kg-1) administered i.p. produce dose-related increases in blood pressure of the urethane-anaesthetized mouse whilst i.c.v. injected L-NAME (0.1 and 100 microgram per mouse) in inactive [15].
  • D-NAME did not potentiate NANC bronchoconstriction [16].
  • The baroreflex sensitivity was also attenuated in these animals when compared with the normotensive control or D-NAME group [17].
  • Cardiac output was significantly higher in the D-NAME group than in the L-NAME group at 60 min [18].

Anatomical context of D-NAME

  • To study the role of NO in cardiac alterations induced by PAF, papillary muscles were pretreated with L-NAME or D-NAME and then challenged with PAF (0.1-1 microM) [19].
  • Similarly, cerebroventricular administration of another NOS inhibitor, N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), but not D-NAME or saline, increased BDNF content in the neocortex [20].
  • L-NAME, but not D-NAME provided structural protection of photoreceptor cells from light damage [21].
  • In the reference memory task, neither L-NAME nor D-NAME affected the number of errors when injected into the hippocampus at doses up to 32 micrograms/side [22].
  • QL was measured continuously, and whole body and hindlimb VO2 were measured 60 and 120 min after L-NAME or D-NAME [18].

Associations of D-NAME with other chemical compounds

  • The stereoisomer, D-NAME, administered at the same doses had little to no effect on either formalin-induced licking or Fos-labeling [23].
  • 2. Intravenous infusion of the NO-synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.25-50 mg kg-1, 45 min) dose-dependently reversed net fluid absorption to net secretion, whereas infusion of D-NAME, the inactive enantiomer of L-NAME, in corresponding doses did not influence net fluid transport [24].
  • Control rats received microinjection of D-NAME (an inactive enantiomer of L-NAME) [25].
  • D-NAME and D-NMMA and L-arginine had no effect on cholinergic neurotransmission. alpha-Chymotrypsin and L-NAME had no effect on excitatory NANC (e-NANC) neural responses in guinea-pig bronchi [26].
  • Males received either an NO synthesis inhibitor, nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 400 microM), or its inactive isomer D-NAME (400 microM) into the MPOA via a microdialysis probe for 3 h prior to the introduction of a female [7].

Gene context of D-NAME

  • Eight groups [Condition: Rest or Exercise; Drug: Saline, 30 mg kg(-1)N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 300 mg kg(-1) L-NAME or 300 mg kg(-1) D-NAME] were used to determine the effect of NOS inhibition on the Flt-1 mRNA response to exercise [27].
  • However, L-NAME and D-NAME at 100 mg/kg attenuated GPx activity in the cerebellum, though 7-NI had no effect [28].
  • However, 7-NI (25 mg/kg), D-NAME and L-NAME at 100 mg/kg did not affect catalase activity in the rat brain [28].
  • L-NAME or its inactive enantiomer Nw-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester, D-NAME, were given continuously in the drinking water (1.0 g/L) during 14 days prior to the start of the treatment with bFGF [29].
  • The dilator action of rat CGRP-alpha in this preparation was not affected by L-NAME or D-NAME (40 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[30]

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of D-NAME

  • Microinjections of L-NAME, but not of D-NAME, caused significant decreases in MAP (19 +/- 1 mmHg, P < 0.001) and in sympathetic nerve activity (30 +/- 3%, P < 0.001) [31].
  • The change in intestinal lavage fluid volume indicated that reabsorptive processes dominated in the sham and TNBS + L-NAME groups, and secretory responses predominated in TNBS and TNBS + D-NAME animals [32].
  • Intrahippocampal administration of the inactive isomer D-NAME at 100 micrograms/side immediately after reperfusion had no effect on the increase in working memory errors in the ischemic rats [33].
  • Three week old animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of L-NAME or D-NAME for 4 weeks, and the same drugs were added to their drinking water [21].
  • L-NAME, but not D-NAME, reduced the cutaneous hyperaemia caused by topical administration of mustard oil by about 50% but did not significantly diminish the exudative reaction to mustard oil [34].


  1. Hypotension and inflammatory cytokine gene expression triggered by factor Xa-nitric oxide signaling. Papapetropoulos, A., Piccardoni, P., Cirino, G., Bucci, M., Sorrentino, R., Cicala, C., Johnson, K., Zachariou, V., Sessa, W.C., Altieri, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Essential role for nitric oxide in neurogenic inflammation in rat cutaneous microcirculation. Evidence for an endothelium-independent mechanism. Kajekar, R., Moore, P.K., Brain, S.D. Circ. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Statins enhance postischemic hyperemia in the skin circulation of hypercholesterolemic patients: a monitoring test of endothelial dysfunction for clinical practice? Binggeli, C., Spieker, L.E., Corti, R., Sudano, I., Stojanovic, V., Hayoz, D., Lüscher, T.F., Noll, G. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Nitric oxide is required for effective innate immunity against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Tsai, W.C., Strieter, R.M., Zisman, D.A., Wilkowski, J.M., Bucknell, K.A., Chen, G.H., Standiford, T.J. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of chronic nitric oxide synthesis inhibition on the inflammatory responses induced by carrageenin in rats. Medeiros, M.V., Binhara, I.M., Moreno Júnior, H., Zatz, R., De Nucci, G., Antunes, E. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Implication of a nitric oxide synthase mechanism in the action of substance P: L-NAME blocks thermal hyperalgesia induced by endogenous and exogenous substance P in the rat. Radhakrishnan, V., Yashpal, K., Hui-Chan, C.W., Henry, J.L. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Nitric oxide promotes medial preoptic dopamine release during male rat copulation. Lorrain, D.S., Matuszewich, L., Howard, R.V., Du, J., Hull, E.M. Neuroreport (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with L-NAME suppresses isolation-induced ultrasounds in rat pups. Campbell, J.O., Fogarty, J.A., Spear, L.P. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Pharmacological and immunohistochemical evidence for a functional nitric oxide synthase system in rat peritoneal eosinophils. Zanardo, R.C., Costa, E., Ferreira, H.H., Antunes, E., Martins, A.R., Murad, F., De Nucci, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Superoxide generation from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase. A Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent and tetrahydrobiopterin regulatory process. Xia, Y., Tsai, A.L., Berka, V., Zweier, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Montrucchio, G., Lupia, E., de Martino, A., Battaglia, E., Arese, M., Tizzani, A., Bussolino, F., Camussi, G. Am. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cell migration. Murohara, T., Witzenbichler, B., Spyridopoulos, I., Asahara, T., Ding, B., Sullivan, A., Losordo, D.W., Isner, J.M. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Endothelin inhibits thick ascending limb chloride flux via ET(B) receptor-mediated NO release. Plato, C.F., Pollock, D.M., Garvin, J.L. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Involvement of nitric oxide in 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced hyperphagia in rats. Yamada, J., Sugimoto, Y., Yoshikawa, T., Horisaka, K. Neuroreport (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester exhibits antinociceptive activity in the mouse. Moore, P.K., Oluyomi, A.O., Babbedge, R.C., Wallace, P., Hart, S.L. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of NANC neural bronchoconstriction in vivo in the guinea-pig: involvement of nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and soluble guanylyl cyclase. Lei, Y.H., Barnes, P.J., Rogers, D.F. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Cardiac sympathetic overactivity and decreased baroreflex sensitivity in L-NAME hypertensive rats. Souza, H.C., Ballejo, G., Salgado, M.C., Da Silva, V.J., Salgado, H.C. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Canine hindlimb blood flow and O2 uptake after inhibition of EDRF/NO synthesis. King, C.E., Melinyshyn, M.J., Mewburn, J.D., Curtis, S.E., Winn, M.J., Cain, S.M., Chapler, C.K. J. Appl. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Role of nitric oxide and platelet-activating factor in cardiac alterations induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the guinea-pig papillary muscle. Alloatti, G., Penna, C., De Martino, A., Montrucchio, G., Camussi, G. Cardiovasc. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Mutual regulation between the intercellular messengers nitric oxide and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rodent neocortical neurons. Xiong, H., Yamada, K., Han, D., Nabeshima, T., Enikolopov, G., Carnahan, J., Nawa, H. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. L-NAME protects against acute light damage in albino rats, but not against retinal degeneration in P23H and S334ter transgenic rats. Káldi, I., Dittmar, M., Pierce, P., Anderson, R.E. Exp. Eye Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Deficits in working memory following inhibition of hippocampal nitric oxide synthesis in the rat. Ohno, M., Yamamoto, T., Watanabe, S. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. A nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor (L-NAME) reduces licking behavior and Fos-labeling in the spinal cord of rats during formalin-induced inflammation. Roche, A.K., Cook, M., Wilcox, G.L., Kajander, K.C. Pain (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Significance of nitric oxide in the stimulation of intestinal fluid absorption in the rat jejunum in vivo. Schirgi-Degen, A., Beubler, E. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Role of nitric oxide in rat locus coeruleus in hypoxia-induced hyperventilation and hypothermia. Fabris, G., Steiner, A.A., Anselmo-Franci, J.A., Branco, L.G. Neuroreport (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Endogenous vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide modulate cholinergic neurotransmission in guinea-pig trachea. Belvisi, M.G., Miura, M., Stretton, D., Barnes, P.J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Attenuation of the exercise-induced increase in skeletal muscle Flt-1 mRNA by nitric oxide synthase inhibition. Gavin, T.P., Wagner, P.D. Acta Physiol. Scand. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Antioxidant levels in the rat brain after nitric oxide synthase inhibition: a preliminary report. Barthwal, M.K., Srivastava, N., Nag, D., Seth, P.K., Srimal, R.C., Dikshit, M. Redox Rep. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Constitutively synthesized nitric oxide is a physiological negative regulator of mammalian angiogenesis mediated by basic fibroblast growth factor. Norrby, K. International journal of experimental pathology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Nitric oxide-dependent and -independent hyperaemia due to calcitonin gene-related peptide in the rat stomach. Holzer, P., Lippe, I.T., Jocic, M., Wachter, C., Erb, R., Heinemann, A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Pressor and sympathoexcitatory effects of nitric oxide in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Hirooka, Y., Polson, J.W., Dampney, R.A. J. Hypertens. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Amelioration of chronic ileitis by nitric oxide synthase inhibition. Miller, M.J., Sadowska-Krowicka, H., Chotinaruemol, S., Kakkis, J.L., Clark, D.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Intrahippocampal administration of the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME prevents working memory deficits in rats exposed to transient cerebral ischemia. Ohno, M., Yamamoto, T., Watanabe, S. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Participation of nitric oxide in the mustard oil-induced neurogenic inflammation of the rat paw skin. Lippe, I.T., Stabentheiner, A., Holzer, P. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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