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Chemical Compound Review

Gadolinium-160     gadolinium

Synonyms: AC1L42RU, 160Gd, 14834-81-2, 69526-99-4, Gadolinium, isotope of mass 160
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Disease relevance of gadolinium

  • The minimum concentration of Gd needed for monitoring, correlation of infused volume with distribution volume, clearance of infused liposome containing Gd and DiI-DS (Lip/Gd/DiI-DS), and potential local toxicity were evaluated [1].
  • METHODS--Serial sE-selectin concentrations were measured in 28 patients with multiple sclerosis undergoing monthly gadolinium (Gd) enhanced MRI of the brain and spinal cord, and in 10 control subjects [2].
  • Relapses and new Gd + lesions during the treatment phase of the trial were determined and compared for each subgroup [3].
  • METHODS: Rats (n = 28) were subjected to reperfused myocardial infarction and received no contrast medium, 0.2, 0.5, or 1.0 mmol/kg Gd DTPA-BMA [4].
  • On Gd DTPA-BMA enhanced T1-weighted spin echo images, infarction was depicted as a high-intensity region "hot spot." On the other hand, the infarcted region was visualized as a low-signal region "cold spot" on Gd DTPA-BMA enhanced T2-weighted images [4].

High impact information on gadolinium

  • Using the patch-clamp technique, we found a single class of stretch-activated cation channel that was completely blocked by gadolinium (Gd3+) [5].
  • The nonselective Ca2+ channel blocker, lanthanide gadolinium (Gd3+), partially inhibited hTRPM3-mediated Ca2+ entry [6].
  • Either treatment of cells with gadolinium (Gd3+), a potent blocker for stretch-activated channels, or removal of extracellular Ca2+ blocked the tyrosine phosphorylation of the proteins, suggesting that stretch-activated (SA) ion channels regulated stretch specific tyrosine phosphorylation [7].
  • In a univariate analysis, high MMP-9 and low TIMP-1 levels precede appearance of new Gd+ lesions (respectively; odds ratio = 3.3, p = 0.008; odds ratio = 2.2, p = 0.086) [8].
  • In patients with progressive disease, an increase in sTNF-R p55 level preceded the appearance of new Gd enhancing lesions on MRI, whereas a decrease in sICAM-1 levels correlated with the appearance of new Gd enhancing lesions [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of gadolinium

  • Times of peak gadolinium concentration ([Gd]) after intravenous (IV) and left ventricular (LV) bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine were determined in renal cortex and medulla in normal rabbits and in rabbits after saline load (overhydration) or hemorrhage (dehydration) [10].

Biological context of gadolinium

  • Furthermore, Gd3+ and 9-AC changed cell volume by only approximately 2% in isosmotic solutions when SACs are expected to be closed [11].
  • The number of Gd-enhanced lesions was significantly correlated with CSF cell counts, as well as the number of CD4(+)CD29(+) helper inducer and IL-2 receptor (CD25)-positive activated helper T cells [12].
  • The AIF signal should be linear with respect to Gd concentration, convertible to the same concentration scale as the tissue signal, and independent of hematocrit [13].
  • The final 30-2 Humphrey visual field mean deviation (MD) was 2.55 dB higher in patients in the lowest quartile of initial Gd-enhanced lesion length compared with the other quartiles (p < 0.01) but recovery was not related to the duration of enhancement [14].
  • (2) These prolonged action potentials were shortened by Cd2+; Gd3+ (gadolinium); Ni2+; Mn2+; Co2+, in order of potency [15].

Anatomical context of gadolinium

  • Prospectively, 28 patients with suspected carotid or arch vessel disease were imaged by contrast arteriographic examination and MRA + Gd of the aortic arch within 30 days of each other [16].
  • RESULTS: By day 2 in PSab baboons, vein wall Gd enhancement was decreased in the mid-inferior vena cava and the right iliac vein (p < 0.05; GA6 vs control baboons), normalizing by 2 months [17].
  • The mid-inferior vena cava revealed fewer neutrophils and total leukocytes in PSab baboons; however, for GA6 in the right iliac vein these decreases were not present despite the absence of Gd enhancement; they were decreased with CY1748 [17].
  • The macromolecular Gd-labeled dendrimer (a half-life of approximately 80 min) increased the signal-to-noise by 81 +/- 30% in the left ventricle, 43 +/- 22% in the lung periphery, and -4 +/- 5% in the chest wall, thus increasing the contrast of these structures relative to the less vascular surrounding tissues [18].
  • Serial Gd-enhanced optic nerve imaging was performed on 15 of the patients until enhancement ceased [14].

Associations of gadolinium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of gadolinium

  • This method uses Abeta1-40 peptide, known for its high binding affinity to Abeta, magnetically labeled with either gadolinium (Gd) or monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) [24].
  • Patients found positive for TACE mRNA in PBMCs showed a significantly higher mean number of new Gd-enhancing lesions per scan one month following PBMC sampling [25].
  • Raised CRP concentrations did correlate with infectious episodes, clinical relapse, and Gd enhancement, and were significantly raised when no MRI activity was found [2].
  • Proportions of Tr cells amongst all CD4 T cells, and expression of IL-10 by Tr cells were increased in the patients with high LL and Gd-enhancing lesions [26].
  • RESULTS: A non-significant trend (P < 0.05) was found only for the correlation of serum IFN-gamma levels and the number of active MRI lesions showing both Gd-enhancement and perifocal edema in the subgroup of patients (n=21) with active lesions [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of gadolinium

  • Ventilation and perfusion MR images were obtained using laser polarized gas and gadolinium (Gd), respectively [28].
  • Of them, 30 (50%) had at least one Gd-enhancing lesion on the baseline MRI scan [29].
  • CONCLUSION: The application of external heat increases uptake of intravenously administered Gd contrast into the knee joint, and may help to optimize indirect MR arthrography at a relatively low cost [30].
  • This prospective study evaluates the ability of MRI using T1-weighted fat-suppressed spin-echo (T1FS) and dynamic gadolinium chelate (Gd) enhanced spoiled-gradient echo (SGE) to detect the presence of pancreatic tumor in patients in whom spiral CT findings are inconclusive [31].
  • Twenty-four hours after intravenous injection of 50 micrograms (1 mumol Gd/kg) of Gd-labeled immunoconjugates to nude mice grafted with human colorectal carcinoma LS 174T, the tumor uptake was 10% to 15%, resulting in an increase of R1 of up to 15% to 20% versus noninjected mice [32].


  1. Distribution of liposomes into brain and rat brain tumor models by convection-enhanced delivery monitored with magnetic resonance imaging. Saito, R., Bringas, J.R., McKnight, T.R., Wendland, M.F., Mamot, C., Drummond, D.C., Kirpotin, D.B., Park, J.W., Berger, M.S., Bankiewicz, K.S. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Soluble E-selectin in multiple sclerosis: raised concentrations in patients with primary progressive disease. Giovannoni, G., Thorpe, J.W., Kidd, D., Kendall, B.E., Moseley, I.F., Thompson, A.J., Keir, G., Miller, D.H., Feldmann, M., Thompson, E.J. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Relapse rates and enhancing lesions in a phase II trial of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis. O'Connor, P., Miller, D., Riester, K., Yang, M., Panzara, M., Dalton, C., Miszkiel, K., Khan, O., Rice, G., Sheremata, W. Mult. Scler. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Depiction of reperfused myocardial infarction using contrast-enhanced spin echo and gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging. Geschwind, J.F., Saeed, M., Wendland, M.F., Higgins, C.B. Investigative radiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Roles of mechano-sensitive ion channels, cytoskeleton, and contractile activity in stretch-induced immediate-early gene expression and hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes. Sadoshima, J., Takahashi, T., Jahn, L., Izumo, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression and characterization of human transient receptor potential melastatin 3 (hTRPM3). Lee, N., Chen, J., Sun, L., Wu, S., Gray, K.R., Rich, A., Huang, M., Lin, J.H., Feder, J.N., Janovitz, E.B., Levesque, P.C., Blanar, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Pp125FAK is required for stretch dependent morphological response of endothelial cells. Naruse, K., Yamada, T., Sai, X.R., Hamaguchi, M., Sokabe, M. Oncogene (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Serum MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels are related to MRI activity in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Waubant, E., Goodkin, D.E., Gee, L., Bacchetti, P., Sloan, R., Stewart, T., Andersson, P.B., Stabler, G., Miller, K. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Changes in serum levels of ICAM and TNF-R correlate with disease activity in multiple sclerosis. Khoury, S.J., Orav, E.J., Guttmann, C.R., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F.A., Weiner, H.L. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Measurement of renal transit of gadopentetate dimeglumine with echo-planar MR imaging. Wolf, G.L., Hoop, B., Cannillo, J.A., Rogowska, J.A., Halpern, E.F. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Stretch-activated channel blockers modulate cell volume in cardiac ventricular myocytes. Suleymanian, M.A., Clemo, H.F., Cohen, N.M., Baumgarten, C.M. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunological disturbances in the central nervous system linked to MRI findings in multiple sclerosis. Wang, H.Y., Matsui, M., Saida, T. J. Neuroimmunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Arterial input functions for dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI: requirements and signal options. Conturo, T.E., Akbudak, E., Kotys, M.S., Chen, M.L., Chun, S.J., Hsu, R.M., Sweeney, C.C., Markham, J. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Visual recovery following acute optic neuritis--a clinical, electrophysiological and magnetic resonance imaging study. Hickman, S.J., Toosy, A.T., Miszkiel, K.A., Jones, S.J., Altmann, D.R., MacManus, D.G., Plant, G.T., Thompson, A.J., Miller, D.H. J. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Presynaptic Na/Ca action potentials in unmyelinated axons of olfactory cortex. Scholfield, C.N. Pflugers Arch. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Magnetic resonance angiography of the aortic arch. Carpenter, J.P., Holland, G.A., Golden, M.A., Barker, C.F., Lexa, F.J., Gilfeather, M., Schnall, M.D. J. Vasc. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Anti-P-selectin antibody decreases inflammation and thrombus formation in venous thrombosis. Downing, L.J., Wakefield, T.W., Strieter, R.M., Prince, M.R., Londy, F.J., Fowlkes, J.B., Hulin, M.S., Kadell, A.M., Wilke, C.A., Brown, S.L., Wrobleski, S.K., Burdick, M.D., Anderson, D.C., Greenfield, L.J. J. Vasc. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Ventilation-synchronous magnetic resonance microscopy of pulmonary structure and ventilation in mice. Chen, B.T., Yordanov, A.T., Johnson, G.A. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Synergistic effects of relaxation and susceptibility in differentiation between compartmentalized and noncompartmentalized tissues. Dupas, B., Bach-Gansmo, T., Meflah, K., Muller, R.N. Investigative radiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Axonal damage in multiple sclerosis plaques: a combined magnetic resonance imaging and 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Simone, I.L., Tortorella, C., Federico, F., Liguori, M., Lucivero, V., Giannini, P., Carrara, D., Bellacosa, A., Livrea, P. J. Neurol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Modulation of paracetamol metabolism by Kupffer cells: a study on rat liver slices. Neyrinck, A., Eeckhoudt, S.L., Meunier, C.J., Pampfer, S., Taper, H.S., Verbeeck, R.K., Delzenne, N. Life Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Pancreatic elastase induces liver injury by activating cytokine production within Kupffer cells via nuclear factor-Kappa B. Murr, M.M., Yang, J., Fier, A., Kaylor, P., Mastorides, S., Norman, J.G. J. Gastrointest. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Preliminary analysis of a trial of pulse cyclophosphamide in IFN-beta-resistant active MS. Smith, D. J. Neurol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Detection of Alzheimer's amyloid in transgenic mice using magnetic resonance microimaging. Wadghiri, Y.Z., Sigurdsson, E.M., Sadowski, M., Elliott, J.I., Li, Y., Scholtzova, H., Tang, C.Y., Aguinaldo, G., Pappolla, M., Duff, K., Wisniewski, T., Turnbull, D.H. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. TACE mRNA expression in peripheral mononudear cells precedes new lesions on MRI in multiple sclerosis. Seifert, T., Kieseier, B.C., Ropele, S., Strasser-Fuchs, S., Quehenberger, F., Fazekas, F., Hartung, H.P. Mult. Scler. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Multiple sclerosis: a study of chemokine receptors and regulatory T cells in relation to MRI variables. Putheti, P., Morris, M., Stawiarz, L., Teleshova, N., Kivisäkk, P., Pashenkov, M., Kouwenhoven, M., Wiberg, M.K., Bronge, L., Huang, Y.M., Söderström, M., Hillert, J., Link, H. Eur. J. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Serum cytokine levels do not correlate with disease activity and severity assessed by brain MRI in multiple sclerosis. Kraus, J., Kuehne, B.S., Tofighi, J., Frielinghaus, P., Stolz, E., Blaes, F., Laske, C., Engelhardt, B., Traupe, H., Kaps, M., Oschmann, P. Acta neurologica Scandinavica. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Co-registration of acquired MR ventilation and perfusion images--validation in a porcine model. Rizi, R.R., Saha, P.K., Wang, B., Ferrante, M.A., Lipson, D., Baumgardner, J., Roberts, D.A. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Monthly brain magnetic resonance imaging scans in patients with clinically isolated syndrome. Pestalozza, I.F., Pozzilli, C., Di Legge, S., Piattella, M.C., Pantano, P., Caramia, F., Pasqualetti, P., Lenzi, G.L. Mult. Scler. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Optimization of indirect arthrography of the knee by application of external heat: initial experience. Kaura, D.R., Schweitzer, M.E., Weishaupt, D., Morrison, W.B. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Pancreatic masses with inconclusive findings on spiral CT: is there a role for MRI? Semelka, R.C., Kelekis, N.L., Molina, P.L., Sharp, T.J., Calvo, B. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Polylysine-Gd-DTPAn and polylysine-Gd-DOTAn coupled to anti-CEA F(ab')2 fragments as potential immunocontrast agents. Relaxometry, biodistribution, and magnetic resonance imaging in nude mice grafted with human colorectal carcinoma. Curtet, C., Maton, F., Havet, T., Slinkin, M., Mishra, A., Chatal, J.F., Muller, R.N. Investigative radiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
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