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Disease relevance of Glycosuria

  • AS-6, when given as a 0.025-0.2% admixture in the diet, dose-dependently ameliorated polydipsia, polyuria, and glycosuria in the genetically obese diabetic mouse, C57BL/KsJ db/db, while neither insulin nor tolbutamide showed any beneficial effects [1].
  • Blood glucose was significantly increased, and glycosuria was evident at all three time points of IDDM [2].
  • Supplemental vitamin A (Group 3) did not affect the hyperglycemia, hyperphagia, polydipsia or glycosuria, but increased the breaking strengths of the incisions of the diabetic rats (468 +/- 40 g, p less than 0.001), and the sponge hydroxyproline (2.38 mg/100 mg sponge, p less than 0.001) [3].
  • As in the two previously described patients, this patient had a normal serum glucose level, underlying hypertension, and onset of glycosuria between 2 and 16 weeks after initiation of therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor [4].
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetes mellitus: correlations with fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, and glycosuria [5].

High impact information on Glycosuria

  • However, nicotinic acid therapy resulted in the deterioration of glycemic control, as evidenced by a 16% increase in mean plasma glucose concentrations, a 21% increase in glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and the induction of marked glycosuria in some patients [6].
  • When splenocytes were transferred from diabetic NOD, male NOD-+/+ and NOD-+/lpr developed diabetes with the incidence of 89 and 83%, respectively, whereas NOD-lpr/lpr did not show glycosuria by 12 wk after transfer [7].
  • Chronic administration of a PPAR-alpha agonist (0.5% [wt/wt] fenofibrate) or a PPAR-gamma agonist (3 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) rosiglitazone) completely prevented the development of glycosuria [8].
  • A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 615 nonobese pregnant women (mean +/- SD age 29.7 +/- 4.3 yr) who were referred to the Division of Internal Medicine at our diabetes center because of glycosuria [9].
  • Four of six NOD mice given nicotinamide from the day of the first occurrence of marked glycosuria displayed a disappearance of glycosuria and an improvement in glucose tolerance during the therapy; however, urine sugar became negative in only one of six mice that received nicotinamide from 1 to 2 wk after the onset of marked glycosuria [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Glycosuria

  • Rats and rabbits parenterally treated with a large daily dose of ferric nitrilotriacetate manifested diabetic symptoms such as hypergycemia, glycosuria, ketonemia, and ketonuria after approximately 60 days fo treatment [11].
  • The inverse correlation between renal threshold and creatinine clearance limits the usefulness of measuring glycosuria in patients with nephropathy [12].
  • Injection of streptozotocin in newborn rats induced a severe diabetic syndrome on day 4 after birth, with acute hyperglycaemia and glycosuria [13].
  • Proximal tubular dysfunction, resembling adult Fanconi's syndrome, was suggested by an increased urinary loss of phosphate and urate and glycosuria [14].
  • Those with a random blood glucose exceeding 12.5 mmol/l were considered diabetic, and all of these patients had glycosuria together with elevated total glycosylated haemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations [15].

Biological context of Glycosuria


Anatomical context of Glycosuria


Gene context of Glycosuria

  • Fasting blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations did not change during GH administration, and no glycosuria was detected in morning urine samples [25].
  • The administration of STZ caused significant increases in levels of glycosuria, proteinuria, albuminuria, glycemia, total cholesterol and AI, as well as in lipid peroxidation products in the brain, plasma and kidney, whereas it decreased the GSH content and SOD, GSH-Px and catalase activities [26].
  • Earlier observations of glycosuria with normal blood glucose levels in some MODY families suggest an additional renal manifestation of the respective genetic defect [27].
  • Treatment of mice with Poly [I:C] alone [50 micrograms twice weekly, an inducer of Interferon (IFN) alpha/beta] or in conjunction with rIL-2 was even more effective, completely preventing glycosuria for 20 weeks [28].
  • Using non-obese diabetic mice, we have evaluated the role of the adrenergic system and eNOS on progression of the disease METHODS AND RESULTS: When glycosuria is high (20 to 500 mg/dL), there is a selective reduction in the response to alpha1 and beta2 agonists but not to dopamine or serotonin [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Glycosuria


  1. An ascochlorin derivative, AS-6, reduces insulin resistance in the genetically obese diabetic mouse, db/db. Hosokawa, T., Ando, K., Tamura, G. Diabetes (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Early onset of increased transcapillary albumin escape in awake diabetic rats. Tucker, B.J. Diabetes (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Impaired wound healing in streptozotocin diabetes. Prevention by supplemental vitamin A. Seifter, E., Rettura, G., Padawer, J., Stratford, F., Kambosos, D., Levenson, S.M. Ann. Surg. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and glycosuria. Milavetz, J.J., Popovtzer, M.M. Arch. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetes mellitus: correlations with fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, and glycosuria. Aleyassine, H., Gardiner, R.J., Tonks, D.B., Koch, P. Diabetes Care (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Nicotinic acid as therapy for dyslipidemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Garg, A., Grundy, S.M. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Requirement of Fas for the development of autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Itoh, N., Imagawa, A., Hanafusa, T., Waguri, M., Yamamoto, K., Iwahashi, H., Moriwaki, M., Nakajima, H., Miyagawa, J., Namba, M., Makino, S., Nagata, S., Kono, N., Matsuzawa, Y. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activation prevents diabetes in OLETF rats: comparison with PPAR-gamma activation. Koh, E.H., Kim, M.S., Park, J.Y., Kim, H.S., Youn, J.Y., Park, H.S., Youn, J.H., Lee, K.U. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparison of diagnostic criteria of IGT, borderline, and GDM. Blood glucose curve and IRI response. Omori, Y., Minei, S., Uchigata, Y., Shimizu, M., Sanaka, M., Honda, M., Hirata, Y. Diabetes (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Preventive and therapeutic effects of large-dose nicotinamide injections on diabetes associated with insulitis. An observation in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Yamada, K., Nonaka, K., Hanafusa, T., Miyazaki, A., Toyoshima, H., Tarui, S. Diabetes (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Induction of diabetes in animals by parenteral administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate. A model of experimental hemochromatosis. Awai, M., Narasaki, M., Yamanoi, Y., Seno, S. Am. J. Pathol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Variations in renal threshold for glucose in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Johansen, K., Svendsen, P.A., Lørup, B. Diabetologia (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Chemical diabetes in the adult rat as the spontaneous evolution of neonatal diabetes. Portha, B., Picon, L., Rosselin, G. Diabetologia (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. ASdult Fanconi's syndrome with renal tubular acidosis in association with renal amyloidosis: occurrence in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Rochman, J., Lichtig, C., Osterweill, D., Tatarsky, I., Eidelman, S. Arch. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and an assessment of methods of detection among a community of elderly Chinese in Hong Kong. Woo, J., Swaminathan, R., Cockram, C., Pang, C.P., Mak, Y.T., Au, S.Y., Vallance-Owen, J. Diabetologia (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of intracisternal glucose or insulin injections on glucose homeostasis in cat. Alvarez-Buylla, R., Rojas, M., de Alvarez-Buylla, E.R., Faría, N. Diabetes (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Improved metabolic disorders of insulin receptor-deficient mice by transgenic overexpression of glucokinase in the liver. Jackerott, M., Baudry, A., Bucchini, D., Jami, J., Joshi, R.L. Diabetologia (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition partially prevents diabetic organomegaly. Hajinazarian, M., Cosio, F.G., Nahman, N.S., Mahan, J.D. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Metabolic trajectory characterisation of xenobiotic-induced hepatotoxic lesions using statistical batch processing of NMR data. Azmi, J., Griffin, J.L., Antti, H., Shore, R.F., Johansson, E., Nicholson, J.K., Holmes, E. The Analyst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of glucose infusion on the renal transport of purine bases and oxypurinol. Moriwaki, Y., Yamamoto, T., Takahashi, S., Suda, M., Higashino, K. Nephron (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Diabetes mellitus in the guinea pig. Lang, C.M., Munger, B.L. Diabetes (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. In vitro cyclosporine toxicity. The effect of verapamil. Scoble, J.E., Senior, J.C., Chan, P., Varghese, Z., Sweny, P., Moorhead, J.F. Transplantation (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Natural history of incidental hyperglycemia and glycosuria of childhood. Schatz, D.A., Kowa, H., Winter, W.E., Riley, W.J. J. Pediatr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Phlorizin binding to renal outer cortical brush-border membranes of cadmium-injected rabbits. Kim, K.R., Park, Y.S. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Growth hormone administration conserves lean body mass during dietary restriction in obese subjects. Clemmons, D.R., Snyder, D.K., Williams, R., Underwood, L.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Red wine prevents brain oxidative stress and nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Montilla, P., Barcos, M., Munoz, M.C., Bujalance, I., Munoz-Castaneda, J.R., Tunez, I. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. A low renal threshold for glucose in diabetic patients with a mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) gene. Menzel, R., Kaisaki, P.J., Rjasanowski, I., Heinke, P., Kerner, W., Menzel, S. Diabet. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunostimulation circumvents diabetes in NOD/Lt mice. Serreze, D.V., Hamaguchi, K., Leiter, E.H. J. Autoimmun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Diabetic mouse angiopathy is linked to progressive sympathetic receptor deletion coupled to an enhanced caveolin-1 expression. Bucci, M., Roviezzo, F., Brancaleone, V., Lin, M.I., Di Lorenzo, A., Cicala, C., Pinto, A., Sessa, W.C., Farneti, S., Fiorucci, S., Cirino, G. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity studies of 1,1-dichloroethane in rats: application to risk evaluation. Muralidhara, S., Ramanathan, R., Mehta, S.M., Lash, L.H., Acosta, D., Bruckner, J.V. Toxicol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Experimental diabetes in the rat: alterations in the vesical function. Paro, M., Prosdocimi, M. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Increased urinary N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion in young insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Lorini, R., Scaramuzza, A., Cortona, L., Valenti, G., d'Annunzio, G., Melzi d'Eril, G.V. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Cephaloridine-induced nephrotoxicity in the Fischer 344 rat: proton NMR spectroscopic studies of urine and plasma in relation to conventional clinical chemical and histopathological assessments of nephronal damage. Anthony, M.L., Gartland, K.P., Beddell, C.R., Lindon, J.C., Nicholson, J.K. Arch. Toxicol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Effects of castration and androgen on glycosuria appearance in the diabetic KK mice induced by monosodium glutamate administration. Nonaka, T., Higuchi, N., Arai, T., Oki, Y. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi (1988) [Pubmed]
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