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Chemical Compound Review

A-CAROTENE     3,7,12,16-tetramethyl-1- (2,6,6-trimethyl-1...

Synonyms: AG-G-98092, AC1L2N7C
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Disease relevance of C05433


Psychiatry related information on C05433


High impact information on C05433


Chemical compound and disease context of C05433


Biological context of C05433


Anatomical context of C05433


Associations of C05433 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of C05433

  • Among the hydrocarbon cartenoids, 18% of alpha-carotene and of beta-carotene and 13% of lycopene were distributed in the HDL fraction, with slightly more in the HDL2 than in the HDL3 subfraction [30].
  • African Americans were poorer and had lower levels of the antioxidant vitamins A and C and alpha-carotene [31].
  • A statistically significant effect of habitual alcohol drinking on HCC risk was observed only for those with low plasma levels of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, or lycopene and for GST M1 null subjects [32].
  • Cases had significantly lower levels of alpha-carotene in the 1974 sera than controls, but no other differences in serum antioxidant vitamin concentrations were observed [33].
  • Participants with the highest serum levels of alpha-carotene, total carotenoids, and selenium were significantly less likely to be in the highest tertile of serum IL-6 at baseline (p < 0.0001) [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of C05433


  1. Inhibitory effects of alpha-carotene on proliferation of the human neuroblastoma cell line GOTO. Murakoshi, M., Takayasu, J., Kimura, O., Kohmura, E., Nishino, H., Iwashima, A., Okuzumi, J., Sakai, T., Sugimoto, T., Imanishi, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. A prospective study of XRCC1 haplotypes and their interaction with plasma carotenoids on breast cancer risk. Han, J., Hankinson, S.E., De Vivo, I., Spiegelman, D., Tamimi, R.M., Mohrenweiser, H.W., Colditz, G.A., Hunter, D.J. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Potent preventive action of alpha-carotene against carcinogenesis: spontaneous liver carcinogenesis and promoting stage of lung and skin carcinogenesis in mice are suppressed more effectively by alpha-carotene than by beta-carotene. Murakoshi, M., Nishino, H., Satomi, Y., Takayasu, J., Hasegawa, T., Tokuda, H., Iwashima, A., Okuzumi, J., Okabe, H., Kitano, H. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Colorful cancer prevention: alpha-carotene, lycopene, and lung cancer. Heber, D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Carotenoids and cardiovascular health. Voutilainen, S., Nurmi, T., Mursu, J., Rissanen, T.H. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Predictors of adipose tissue carotenoid and retinol levels in nine countries. The EURAMIC Study. Virtanen, S.M., van't Veer, P., Kok, F., Kardinaal, A.F., Aro, A. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Longitudinal associations between body mass index and serum carotenoids: the CARDIA study. Andersen, L.F., Jacobs, D.R., Gross, M.D., Schreiner, P.J., Dale Williams, O., Lee, D.H. Br. J. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Vitamin A and other deficiencies in Linxian, a high esophageal cancer incidence area in northern China. Yang, C.S., Sun, Y., Yang, Q.U., Miller, K.W., Li, G.Y., Zheng, S.F., Ershow, A.G., Blot, W.J., Li, J.Y. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Defining the primary route for lutein synthesis in plants: the role of Arabidopsis carotenoid beta-ring hydroxylase CYP97A3. Kim, J., DellaPenna, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Carotenoids, vitamin A and risk of adenomatous polyp recurrence in the polyp prevention trial. Steck-Scott, S., Forman, M.R., Sowell, A., Borkowf, C.B., Albert, P.S., Slattery, M., Brewer, B., Caan, B., Paskett, E., Iber, F., Kikendall, W., Marshall, J., Shike, M., Weissfeld, J., Snyder, K., Schatzkin, A., Lanza, E. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Fruits, vegetables, and micronutrients in relation to breast cancer modified by menopause and hormone receptor status. Gaudet, M.M., Britton, J.A., Kabat, G.C., Steck-Scott, S., Eng, S.M., Teitelbaum, S.L., Terry, M.B., Neugut, A.I., Gammon, M.D. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Intake of specific carotenoids and lung cancer risk. Le Marchand, L., Hankin, J.H., Kolonel, L.N., Beecher, G.R., Wilkens, L.R., Zhao, L.P. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Dietary intake of specific carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E, and prevalence of colorectal adenomas. Enger, S.M., Longnecker, M.P., Chen, M.J., Harper, J.M., Lee, E.R., Frankl, H.D., Haile, R.W. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Plant sterols and risk of stomach cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. De Stefani, E., Boffetta, P., Ronco, A.L., Brennan, P., Deneo-Pellegrini, H., Carzoglio, J.C., Mendilaharsu, M. Nutrition and cancer. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Ultrafast carotenoid-to-chlorophyll singlet energy transfer in the cytochrome b6f complex from Bryopsis corticulans. Zuo, P., Li, B.X., Zhao, X.H., Wu, Y.S., Ai, X.C., Zhang, J.P., Li, L.B., Kuang, T.Y. Biophys. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Serum carotenoids, vitamins A and E, and 8 year lung function decline in a general population. Guénégou, A., Leynaert, B., Pin, I., Le Moël, G., Zureik, M., Neukirch, F. Thorax (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Alpha- and beta-carotene from a commercial puree are more bioavailable to humans than from boiled-mashed carrots, as determined using an extrinsic stable isotope reference method. Edwards, A.J., Nguyen, C.H., You, C.S., Swanson, J.E., Emenhiser, C., Parker, R.S. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Carotenoids and menstrual cycle phase in young women. Rock, C.L., Demitrack, M.A., Rosenwald, E.N., Brown, M.B. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of vegetable intake: the University of Minnesota Cancer Prevention Research Unit Feeding Studies. Martini, M.C., Campbell, D.R., Gross, M.D., Grandits, G.A., Potter, J.D., Slavin, J.L. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of increased vegetable and fruit consumption on markers of oxidative cellular damage. Thompson, H.J., Heimendinger, J., Haegele, A., Sedlacek, S.M., Gillette, C., O'Neill, C., Wolfe, P., Conry, C. Carcinogenesis (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Lipophilic antioxidants in blood plasma as markers of atherosclerosis: the role of alpha-carotene and gamma-tocopherol. Kontush, A., Spranger, T., Reich, A., Baum, K., Beisiegel, U. Atherosclerosis (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Nutritional predictors for cellular nipple aspirate fluid: Nutrition and Breast Health Study. Kato, I., Ren, J., Visscher, D.W., Djuric, Z. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Multinational study of major breast milk carotenoids of healthy mothers. Canfield, L.M., Clandinin, M.T., Davies, D.P., Fernandez, M.C., Jackson, J., Hawkes, J., Goldman, W.J., Pramuk, K., Reyes, H., Sablan, B., Sonobe, T., Bo, X. European journal of nutrition. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Vegetable consumption and carotenoids in plasma and adipose tissue in Malaga, Spain. Gómez-Aracena, J., Bogers, R., Van't Veer, P., Gómez-Gracia, E., García-Rodríguez, A., Wedel, H., Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, J. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Dietary carotenoids and risk of coronary artery disease in women. Osganian, S.K., Stampfer, M.J., Rimm, E., Spiegelman, D., Manson, J.E., Willett, W.C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Changes in serum carotenoids in subjects with colorectal adenomas after 24 mo of beta-carotene supplementation. Australian Polyp Prevention Project Investigators. Wahlqvist, M.L., Wattanapenpaiboon, N., Macrae, F.A., Lambert, J.R., MacLennan, R., Hsu-Hage, B.H. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. The role of diet and nutrition in cervical carcinogenesis: a review of recent evidence. García-Closas, R., Castellsagué, X., Bosch, X., González, C.A. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Increasing vegetable and fruit intake: randomized intervention and monitoring in an at-risk population. Smith-Warner, S.A., Elmer, P.J., Tharp, T.M., Fosdick, L., Randall, B., Gross, M., Wood, J., Potter, J.D. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Prediagnostic levels of serum micronutrients in relation to risk of gastric cancer in Shanghai, China. Yuan, J.M., Ross, R.K., Gao, Y.T., Qu, Y.H., Chu, X.D., Yu, M.C. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the concentration of individual carotenoids in lipoproteins of premenopausal women: a controlled dietary study. Forman, M.R., Johnson, E.J., Lanza, E., Graubard, B.I., Beecher, G.R., Muesing, R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Racial difference in lung function in African-American and White children: effect of anthropometric, socioeconomic, nutritional, and environmental factors. Harik-Khan, R.I., Muller, D.C., Wise, R.A. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Plasma carotenoids, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms, and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: independent and interactive effects. Yu, M.W., Chiu, Y.H., Chiang, Y.C., Chen, C.H., Lee, T.H., Santella, R.M., Chern, H.D., Liaw, Y.F., Chen, C.J. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Uric acid and serum antioxidant capacity: a reaction to atherosclerosis? Nieto, F.J., Iribarren, C., Gross, M.D., Comstock, G.W., Cutler, R.G. Atherosclerosis (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Serum antioxidants, inflammation, and total mortality in older women. Walston, J., Xue, Q., Semba, R.D., Ferrucci, L., Cappola, A.R., Ricks, M., Guralnik, J., Fried, L.P. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Serum carotenoid concentrations in US children and adolescents. Ford, E.S., Gillespie, C., Ballew, C., Sowell, A., Mannino, D.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. A prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men. Brown, L., Rimm, E.B., Seddon, J.M., Giovannucci, E.L., Chasan-Taber, L., Spiegelman, D., Willett, W.C., Hankinson, S.E. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Bioavailability of beta-carotene is lower in raw than in processed carrots and spinach in women. Rock, C.L., Lovalvo, J.L., Emenhiser, C., Ruffin, M.T., Flatt, S.W., Schwartz, S.J. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. An international evaluation of the cancer preventive potential of carotenoids. Vainio, H., Rautalahti, M. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1998) [Pubmed]
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