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Chemical Compound Review

AC1L6HSU     N,N'-bis(2,3-dihydro-1H- inden-5...

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Disease relevance of GLUTARIC ACID


Psychiatry related information on GLUTARIC ACID


High impact information on GLUTARIC ACID


Chemical compound and disease context of GLUTARIC ACID


Biological context of GLUTARIC ACID


Anatomical context of GLUTARIC ACID


Associations of GLUTARIC ACID with other chemical compounds


Gene context of GLUTARIC ACID

  • Furthermore, increasing the 23-membered lactam ring of 1 by one carbon atom (succinyl --> glutaric acid linker) gives a highly selective and potent antagonist 9 for the hMC3 receptor [27].
  • Glutaric acid (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids (3-OH-GA) are key metabolites in glutaryl co-enzyme A dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency and are both considered to be potential neurotoxins [28].
  • Nonpeptide renin inhibitors employing a novel 3-aza(or oxa)-2,4-dialkyl glutaric acid moiety as a P2/P3 amide bond replacement [29].
  • As controls, we also evaluated 54 subjects with glutaric aciduria secondary to other causes (16-7509 mmol/mol creatinine; reference range: <15; no significant amounts of 3-hydroxy glutaric acid detectable) [30].
  • A novel Co-glutarate, Co[O(2)C(CH(2))(3)CO(2)] (1), was synthesized as single crystals by the hydrothermal reaction of CoCl(2) with glutaric acid in the presence of KOH and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, TGA, IR, UV-vis reflectance spectrometry, and SQUID measurements [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GLUTARIC ACID

  • In one, in which the fetus was not affected, glutaric acid was not detected in the amniotic fluid at amniocentesis (15 weeks) and the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity of cultured amniotic cells was normal [7].
  • Hand lotion containing 2% glutaric acid was significantly more effective than placebo in inactivating rhinovirus serotype 2 on the fingers of human volunteers [2].
  • A substantial number of patients show only slightly, intermittently elevated or even normal urinary excretion of glutaric acid, which makes early diagnosis and treatment to prevent the severe neurological sequelae difficult [32].
  • An animal model is necessary to test possible intervention strategies, and prior reports suggested that GA or 3-OH-GA could be used to create specific neuron loss in adult rats [33].
  • Therefore, the initial aim of the present work was to induce high glutaric acid (GA) concentrations in rat brain similar to those found in GAI patients through subcutaneous injection of GA [34].


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  2. Inactivation of rhinovirus on human fingers by virucidal activity of glutaric acid. Hayden, G.F., Deforest, D., Hendley, J.O., Gwaltney, J.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Glutaric acid and its metabolites cause apoptosis in immature oligodendrocytes: a novel mechanism of white matter degeneration in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Gerstner, B., Gratopp, A., Marcinkowski, M., Sifringer, M., Obladen, M., Bührer, C. Pediatr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  5. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of the role of mitochondria in the disease process. Chance, B., Leigh, J.S., Smith, D.S., Nioka, S., Clark, B.J. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Glutaric aciduria type I associated with learning disability. Patil, N., Shinde, S., Karande, S., Kulkarni, M. Indian journal of pediatrics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Antenatal diagnosis of glutaric acidemia. Goodman, S.I., Gallegos, D.A., Pullin, C.J., Halpern, B., Truscott, R.J., Wise, G., Wilcken, B., Ryan, E.D., Whelen, D.T. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Biochemical, pathologic and behavioral analysis of a mouse model of glutaric acidemia type I. Koeller, D.M., Woontner, M., Crnic, L.S., Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B., Stephens, J., Hunt, E.L., Goodman, S.I. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Bioenergetics in glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a role for glutaryl-coenzyme A. Sauer, S.W., Okun, J.G., Schwab, M.A., Crnic, L.R., Hoffmann, G.F., Goodman, S.I., Koeller, D.M., Kölker, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Conservation of central nervous system glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase in fruit-eating bats with glutaric aciduria and deficient hepatic glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase. McMillan, T.A., Gibson, K.M., Sweetman, L., Meyers, G.S., Green, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Glutaric aciduria type III: a distinctive non-disease? Knerr, I., Zschocke, J., Trautmann, U., Dorland, L., de Koning, T.J., Müller, P., Christensen, E., Trefz, F.K., Wündisch, G.F., Rascher, W., Hoffmann, G.F. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Antitumor activities of conjugates of mitomycin C with estradiol benzoate and estradiol via glutaric acid in suspension dosage form. Ishiki, N., Onishi, H., Machida, Y. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Nucleotide sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of the cephalosporin acylase gene of a Pseudomonas strain. Ishiye, M., Niwa, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. GM1 ganglioside prevents seizures, Na+,K+-ATPase activity inhibition and oxidative stress induced by glutaric acid and pentylenetetrazole. Fighera, M.R., Royes, L.F., Furian, A.F., Oliveira, M.S., Fiorenza, N.G., Frussa-Filho, R., Petry, J.C., Coelho, R.C., Mello, C.F. Neurobiol. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Synthesis of 1-chloro-2-oxohexanol 6-phosphate, a covalent active-site reagent for phosphoglucose isomerase. Schnackerz, K.D., Chirgwin, J.M., Noltmann, E.A. Biochemistry (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Glutaric acid moderately compromises energy metabolism in rat brain. da C Ferreira, G., Viegas, C.M., Schuck, P.F., Latini, A., Dutra-Filho, C.S., Wyse, A.T., Wannmacher, C.M., Vargas, C.R., Wajner, M. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Chronic treatment with glutaric acid induces partial tolerance to excitotoxicity in neuronal cultures from chick embryo telencephalons. Kölker, S., Okun, J.G., Ahlemeyer, B., Wyse, A.T., Hörster, F., Wajner, M., Kohlmüller, D., Mayatepek, E., Krieglstein, J., Hoffmann, G.F. J. Neurosci. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a distinct encephalopathy. Hoffmann, G.F., Trefz, F.K., Barth, P.G., Böhles, H.J., Biggemann, B., Bremer, H.J., Christensen, E., Frosch, M., Hanefeld, F., Hunneman, D.H. Pediatrics (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Phenotypic variability in glutaric aciduria type I: Report of fourteen cases in five Canadian Indian kindreds. Haworth, J.C., Booth, F.A., Chudley, A.E., deGroot, G.W., Dilling, L.A., Goodman, S.I., Greenberg, C.R., Mallory, C.J., McClarty, B.M., Seshia, S.S. J. Pediatr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Small aliphatic dicarboxylic acids inhibit renal uptake of administered mercury. Zalups, R.K., Barfuss, D.W. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Inhibition of synaptosomal [3H]glutamate uptake and [3H]glutamate binding to plasma membranes from brain of young rats by glutaric acid in vitro. Porciúncula, L.O., Dal-Pizzol, A., Coitinho, A.S., Emanuelli, T., Souza, D.O., Wajner, M. J. Neurol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Maturation-dependent neurotoxicity of 3-hydroxyglutaric and glutaric acids in vitro: a new pathophysiologic approach to glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Kölker, S., Ahlemeyer, B., Krieglstein, J., Hoffmann, G.F. Pediatr. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Purification and properties of aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase II from human erythrocyte. Das, B., Srivastava, S.K. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Vascular dysfunction as an additional pathomechanism in glutaric aciduria type I. Mühlhausen, C., Ergün, S., Strauss, K.A., Koeller, D.M., Crnic, L., Woontner, M., Goodman, S.I., Ullrich, K., Braulke, T. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Constituents from the leaves of Phellodendron amurense and their antioxidant activity. Leu, C.H., Li, C.Y., Yao, X., Wu, T.S. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Riboflavin-responsive glutaric aciduria type II presenting as a leukodystrophy. Uziel, G., Garavaglia, B., Ciceri, E., Moroni, I., Rimoldi, M. Pediatric neurology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Novel cyclic templates of alpha-MSH give highly selective and potent antagonists/agonists for human melanocortin-3/4 receptors. Kavarana, M.J., Trivedi, D., Cai, M., Ying, J., Hammer, M., Cabello, C., Grieco, P., Han, G., Hruby, V.J. J. Med. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Intracerebral accumulation of glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids secondary to limited flux across the blood-brain barrier constitute a biochemical risk factor for neurodegeneration in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Sauer, S.W., Okun, J.G., Fricker, G., Mahringer, A., Müller, I., Crnic, L.R., Mühlhausen, C., Hoffmann, G.F., Hörster, F., Goodman, S.I., Harding, C.O., Koeller, D.M., Kölker, S. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Nonpeptide renin inhibitors employing a novel 3-aza(or oxa)-2,4-dialkyl glutaric acid moiety as a P2/P3 amide bond replacement. Baker, W.R., Fung, A.K., Kleinert, H.D., Stein, H.H., Plattner, J.J., Armiger, Y.L., Condon, S.L., Cohen, J., Egan, D.A., Barlow, J.L. J. Med. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. The urinary excretion of glutarylcarnitine is an informative tool in the biochemical diagnosis of glutaric acidemia type I. Tortorelli, S., Hahn, S.H., Cowan, T.M., Brewster, T.G., Rinaldo, P., Matern, D. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. A coordination polymer of cobalt(II)-glutarate: two-dimensional interlocking structure by dicarboxylate ligands with two different conformations. Lee, E., Kim, Y., Jung, D.Y. Inorganic chemistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Sensitivity and specificity of free and total glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid measurements by stable-isotope dilution assays for the diagnosis of glutaric aciduria type I. Baric, I., Wagner, L., Feyh, P., Liesert, M., Buckel, W., Hoffmann, G.F. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Preliminary attempts to establish a rat model of striatal injury in glutaric acidaemia type I. Funk, C.B., Prasad, A.N., Del Bigio, M.R. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Glutaric acid administration impairs energy metabolism in midbrain and skeletal muscle of young rats. Ferreira, G.d.a. .C., Viegas, C.M., Schuck, P.F., Tonin, A., Ribeiro, C.A., Coelho, D.d.e. .M., Dalla-Costa, T., Latini, A., Wyse, A.T., Wannmacher, C.M., Vargas, C.R., Wajner, M. Neurochem. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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