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Chemical Compound Review

Orthocresol     2-methylphenol

Synonyms: o-Kresol, o-Toluol, o-cresol, o-Oxytoluene, ortho-cresol, ...
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Disease relevance of o-cresol

  • However, the toxicities of HRP-treated solutions decreased within 21 h after the completion of the enzymatic reaction, except in the case of 2-methylphenol [1].
  • Unlike its closest known Ralstonia species, however, strain PHS1 was able to utilize toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and both m- and o-cresol [2].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate if the simultaneous allergic reactions to PFR and o-cresol could be explained by the presence of this substance in PFR [3].
  • It could only be demonstrated in infants whose birth-weights were less than 2500 g, and no association was observed between the type of feed and para-cresol presence in stools [4].
  • Cats exposed (short-term) to 9 to 50 mg/m(3) of o-Cresol developed inflammation and irritation of the upper respiratory tract, pulmonary edema, and hemorrhage and perivascular sclerosis in the lungs [5].

Psychiatry related information on o-cresol


High impact information on o-cresol


Chemical compound and disease context of o-cresol


Biological context of o-cresol


Anatomical context of o-cresol


Associations of o-cresol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of o-cresol

  • Moreover, o-cresol (0.5 and 1 mM) inhibited the COX-1 activity by 40-95% [13].
  • COX-2 enzyme activity was inhibited by 68% at a concentration of 5 mM o-cresol [13].
  • The percentages of urine specimens in which o-cresol concentrations exceeded this BEI were 14.3% in the NN group, 9.1% in the ND group, and 15.4% in the DD group [24].
  • Using P. putida PaW340 (pPP4062, pFP3028), which has the tou promoter fused to the reporter catechol-2,3-dioxygenase, and the regulator gene touR, it was determined that the tou promoter was induced directly 5.7-, 7.1-, and 5.1-fold for 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol, respectively (compared to an 8.8-fold induction with o-cresol) [25].
  • The no observed effect levels (NOEL) of o-Cresol was 240 mg/kg in mink and 778 mg/kg in ferrets in short-term feeding studies, with no significant dose-related toxicity (excluding body weight parameters) [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of o-cresol


  1. Detoxification of phenolic solutions with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. Wagner, M., Nicell, J.A. Water Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and characterization of a thermotolerant bacterium Ralstonia sp. strain PHS1 that degrades benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene. Lee, S.K., Lee, S.B. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Contact allergy to o-cresol--a sensitizer in phenol-formaldehyde resin. Bruze, M., Zimerson, E. Am. J. Contact Dermatitis (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Prospective study of Clostridium difficile colonization and paracresol detection in the stools of babies on a special care unit. Phua, T.J., Rogers, T.R., Pallett, A.P. The Journal of hygiene. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium p-chloro-m-cresol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorothymol, mixed cresols, m-cresol, o-cresol, p-cresol, isopropyl cresols, thymol, o-cymen-5-ol, and carvacrol. Andersen, A. International journal of toxicology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Urinary excretion of o-cresol and hippuric acid after toluene exposure in rotogravure printing. Nise, G. International archives of occupational and environmental health. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. The uremic solute p-cresol decreases leukocyte transendothelial migration in vitro. Faure, V., Cerini, C., Paul, P., Berland, Y., Dignat-George, F., Brunet, P. Int. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Saturation mutagenesis of toluene ortho-monooxygenase of Burkholderia cepacia G4 for Enhanced 1-naphthol synthesis and chloroform degradation. Rui, L., Kwon, Y.M., Fishman, A., Reardon, K.F., Wood, T.K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. A short and efficient synthesis of the pharmacological research tool GW501516 for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Wei, Z.L., Kozikowski, A.P. J. Org. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Toluene metabolism by cDNA-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450. Nakajima, T., Wang, R.S., Elovaara, E., Gonzalez, F.J., Gelboin, H.V., Raunio, H., Pelkonen, O., Vainio, H., Aoyama, T. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Biodegradation of ortho-cresol by a mixed culture of nitrate-reducing bacteria growing on toluene. Flyvbjerg, J., Jørgensen, C., Arvin, E., Jensen, B.K., Olsen, S.K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Hippuric acid and ortho-cresol as biological indicators of occupational exposure to toluene. De Rosa, E., Bartolucci, G.B., Sigon, M., Callegaro, R., Perbellini, L., Brugnone, F. Am. J. Ind. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 production by two environmental toxicants: m- and o-cresol. Chan, C.P., Yuan-Soon, H., Wang, Y.J., Lan, W.H., Chen, L.I., Chen, Y.J., Lin, B.R., Chang, M.C., Jeng, J.H. Toxicology (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Gas chromatographic determination of urinary o-cresol for the monitoring of toluene exposure. Truchon, G., Tardif, R., Brodeur, J. Journal of analytical toxicology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 and Burkholderia cepacia G4 toward chlorinated ethenes. Vardar, G., Barbieri, P., Wood, T.K. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Metabolism and covalent binding of [14C]toluene by human and rat liver microsomal fractions and liver slices. Chapman, D.E., Moore, T.J., Michener, S.R., Powis, G. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Disposition, elimination, and metabolism of tri-o-cresyl phosphate following daily oral administration in Fischer 344 male rats. Somkuti, S.G., Abou-Donia, M.B. Arch. Toxicol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Determination of phenol and o-cresol by GC/MS in a fatal poisoning case. Boatto, G., Nieddu, M., Carta, A., Pau, A., Lorenzoni, S., Manconi, P., Serra, D. Forensic Sci. Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Monoclonal antibody-directed characterization of cytochrome P450 isozymes responsible for toluene metabolism in rat liver. Nakajima, T., Wang, R.S., Elovaara, E., Park, S.S., Gelboin, H.V., Hietanen, E., Vainio, H. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Determination of urinary hippuric acid and o-cresol levels as biological indicators of toluene exposure in shoe-workers and glue sniffers. Cok, I., Dagdelen, A., Gökçe, E. Biomarkers (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Studies on the metabolism of the neurotoxic tri-o-cresyl phosphate. Distribution, excretion, and metabolism in male cats after a single, dermal application. Nomeir, A.A., Abou-Donia, M.B. Toxicology (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of a single oral dose of [14C]tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) in the male rat. Abou-Donia, M.B., Nomeir, A.A., Bower, J.H., Makkawy, H.A. Toxicology (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of toluene and cresols on Na+,K+-ATPase, and serotonin in rat brain. Calderón-Guzmán, D., Hernández-Islas, J.L., Espítia Vázquez, I.R., Barragán-Mejía, G., Hernández-García, E., Del Angel, D.S., Juárez-Olguín, H. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Distribution of urinary hippuric acid concentrations by ALDH2 genotype. Kawamoto, T., Murata, K., Koga, M., Hattori, Y., Kodama, Y. Occupational and environmental medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and chlorinated phenols induce toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase activity in Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1. Ryoo, D., Shim, H., Arenghi, F.L., Barbieri, P., Wood, T.K. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Peculiarities of carcinogenesis under simultaneous oral administration of benzo(a)pyrene and o-cresol in mice. Yanysheva NYa, n.u.l.l., Balenko, N.V., Chernichenko, I.A., Babiy, V.F. Environ. Health Perspect. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Determination of urinary hippuric acid and o-cresol, as indices of toluene exposure, by liquid chromatography on dynamically modified silica. Hansen, S.H., Døssing, M. J. Chromatogr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Adsorption of the uremic toxin p-cresol onto hemodialysis membranes and microporous adsorbent zeolite silicalite. Wernert, V., Schäf, O., Faure, V., Brunet, P., Dou, L., Berland, Y., Boulet, P., Kuchta, B., Denoyel, R. J. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Removal of soluble organics from water by a hybrid process of clay adsorption and membrane filtration. Lin, S.H., Hsiao, R.C., Juang, R.S. J. Hazard. Mater. (2006) [Pubmed]
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