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Chemical Compound Review

Novocain     2-diethylaminoethyl 4-aminobenzoate

Synonyms: Anticort, Jenacain, Neocaine, Procaina, procaine, ...
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Disease relevance of procaine


Psychiatry related information on procaine

  • 4. Procaine may be a useful agent for helping to elucidate the anatomic and physiologic basis for mood, endocrine, and cognitive dysregulation associated with stress and affective disorders [6].

High impact information on procaine


Chemical compound and disease context of procaine


Biological context of procaine

  • Sometimes these were surmounted by a spike potential Procaine markedly reduced the hyperpolarization induced by nicorandil and increased the time required for abolition of slow waves [15].
  • Animals are first perfused with a room-temperature buffer containing magnesium sulphate and procain (to prevent vasoconstriction) followed by cold buffer containing aluminum sulphate and formaldehyde [16].
  • Although pressor responses were similar at all doses, 14 of 32 rats had consistent declines in cardiac output (> 15%) and greater increases in systemic vascular resistance after administration of cocaine (5 mg/Kg, i.v.). Procaine (10 mg/Kg i.v.) did not mimic this effect in either subgroup [17].
  • Tectal field potentials evoked by diffuse light on- and off-stimuli before and after administration of the conduction-blocking drug procaine (PRC) suggest that populations of tectal neurons are affected by pretectal inhibitory influences [18].
  • The effect of the Novocain blockade of the stellate ganglion upon the duration of the electrical systole (Q-T) of the heart was studied in 38 patients [19].

Anatomical context of procaine

  • When the specific point was blocked by injection of a larger dose of novocain or the deep peroneal nerve was cut, then needling at the specific point lost its hypocholesterolemic effect [20].
  • 2. Procaine facilitated transmission of evoked excitatory activity from the amygdala to the ventromedial hypothalamus, but only after a considerable delay from the time of injection [21].
  • Flavor-illness aversions: potentiation of odor by taste is disrupted by application of novocaine into amygdala [22].
  • In the experiment made on rabbits treated with procain or DEAE, the release of FOR by PMN leukocytes was much more reduced, as compared to controls [13].
  • The authors consider that owing to their capacity to reduce the expression of antigens MHC of class I and class II on the membrane of lymphocytes, procain and DEAE can have benefic effects in some autoimmune, autoaggression and inflammatory diseases [23].

Associations of procaine with other chemical compounds

  • In aqueous solutions, the kinetic features of both the hydrolysis reaction of the ester function of novocaine in alkaline medium and the nitrosation reaction of the primary amine group of novocaine in mild acid medium were investigated by UV/vis spectroscopy [9].
  • The purpose of this investigation was to test if a (C-P) aqueous system provides a microenvironment in which P is less exposed to hydroxyl ion catalyzed degradation, its main degradation pathway over a wide pH range [24].
  • 1. Cardioplegia with a potassium free Mg-1-aspartate and Procaine-solution (Cardioplegin) [25].
  • 1. Procaine, a membrane stabilizer, depresses the maximal responses of the electrically driven rat right ventricle to isoprenaline [26].
  • There is also no depression of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine uptake into the intact cells in vitro when the mice are irradiated either shortly before or after i.v. injection of 0.02 mg of procain chloride [27].

Gene context of procaine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of procaine

  • Procaine (Gerovital): no effect on the rehabilitation result in patients with back or hip disease [31].
  • Effects of a procaine preparation (Gerovital H3) in hospitalized geriatric patients: a double-blind study [32].
  • Vagotomy or procain completely protected the rat stomach against the reserpine injury [33].
  • The intensity of expression of MHC complexes of class II decreases from 160.94 in the control group, to 107.21 in the procain group and to 104.05 in the DEAE group [23].
  • The majority of the blood supply is derived from the external carotid system, so ligation of the external carotid and injection of saline or 0.5% novocaine solution in the base of the tumour just before the extirpation of the tumour can reduce the loss of blood during the operation [34].


  1. Letter: Procaine for malignant hyperthermia. Heffron, J.J., Mitchell, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Recovery of isolated rat atrial function related to ATP under different anoxic conditions. Savabi, F., Bessman, S.P. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Contact dermatitis from novocaine in Gerovital cream. Goitre, M., Bedello, P.G., Cane, D., Roncarolo, G. Contact Derm. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibitory effects of procaine on the electrical and mechanical activities of the smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig urinary bladder. Kurihara, S., Sakai, T. Jpn. J. Physiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Intrathecal fentanyl-induced pruritus is more severe in combination with procaine than with lidocaine or bupivacaine. Mulroy, M.F., Larkin, K.L., Siddiqui, A. Regional anesthesia and pain medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Neuroendocrine effects of limbic activation by electrical, spontaneous, and pharmacological modes: relevance to the pathophysiology of affective dysregulation in psychiatric disorders. Kling, M.A., Kellner, C.H., Post, R.M., Cowdry, R.W., Gardner, D.L., Coppola, R., Putnam, F.W., Gold, P.W. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Charged local anesthetics block ionic conduction in the sheep cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel. Tinker, A., Williams, A.J. Biophys. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Mechanisms underlying intracellular signal transduction of the slow IPSP in submucous neurones of the guinea-pig caecum. Mihara, S., Hirai, K., Katayama, Y., Nishi, S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Ester hydrolysis and nitrosative deamination of novocaine in aqueous solutions. Iglesias-Martinez, E., Brandariz, I., Penedo, F. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Release of non-neuronal acetylcholine from the isolated human placenta is mediated by organic cation transporters. Wessler, I., Roth, E., Deutsch, C., Brockerhoff, P., Bittinger, F., Kirkpatrick, C.J., Kilbinger, H. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Local anesthetics inhibit muscarinic receptor-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Tan, Z., Dohi, S., Ohguchi, K., Nakashima, S., Nozawa, Y. Anesthesiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. A critical look at the evidence for and against elective epinephrine use in the finger. Thomson, C.J., Lalonde, D.H., Denkler, K.A., Feicht, A.J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Procain and diethylaminoethanol influence on the release of free oxygen radicals by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, in rabbits and humans. Dolganiuc, A., Radu, D., Olinescu, A., Vrăbiescu, A. Roumanian archives of microbiology and immunology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Pathology of allergic diseases. Schwartz, A. Acta Universitatis Carolinae. Medica. Monographia. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. The relaxant action of nicorandil in guinea-pig isolated trachealis. Allen, S.L., Foster, R.W., Morgan, G.P., Small, R.C. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Improved catecholamine histofluorescence in the developing brain based on the magnesium and aluminum (ALFA) perfusion techniques: methodology and anatomical observations. Lorén, I., Björklund, A., Lindvall, O., Schmidt, R.H. Brain Res. Bull. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Dichotomous cardiac and systemic vascular responses to cocaine in conscious rats. Branch, C.A., Knuepfer, M.M. Life Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Influence of pretectal lesions on tectal responses to visual stimulation in anurans: field potential, single neuron and behavior analyses. Ewert, J.P., Schürg-Pfeiffer, E., Schwippert, W.W. Acta. Biol. Hung. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of the stellate ganglion blockade upon the electrical systole (Q-T interval) of the heart. Solti, F., Balogh, A., Czakó, E. Cor et vasa. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Neurogenic regulation of lipid metabolism in the rabbit. A mechanism for the cholesterol-lowering effect of acupuncture. Wu, C.C., Hsu, C.J. Atherosclerosis (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. The effects of procaine HCl on population cellular and evoked response activity within the limbic system of the cat. Evidence for differential excitatory action of procaine in a variety of limbic circuits. Adamec, R.E., Stark-Adamec, C. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Flavor-illness aversions: potentiation of odor by taste is disrupted by application of novocaine into amygdala. Bermudez-Rattoni, F., Rusiniak, K.W., Garcia, J. Behavioral and neural biology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Analysis by flow cytometry of the subpopulations of lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of procain or diethylaminoethanol treated rabbits. Vrăbiescu, A., Radu, D., Dolganiuc, A., Bordea, M., Olinescu, A. Roumanian archives of microbiology and immunology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. The improvement of aqueous chemical stability of a model basic drug by ion pairing with acid groups of polyelectrolytes. Jimenez-Kairuz, A.F., Allemandi, D.A., Manzo, R.H. International journal of pharmaceutics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Induced ischemic cardiac arrest. Clinical and experimental results with magnesium-aspartate-procaine solution (Cardioplegin). Kalmár, P., Bleese, N., Döring, V., Gercken, G., Kirsch, U., Lierse, W., Pokar, H., Polonius, M.J., Rodewald, G. The Journal of cardiovascular surgery. (1975) [Pubmed]
  26. Atenolol, bufuralol and prizidilol are dual antagonists of the responses of the electrically driven rat right ventricle strip to isoprenaline. Doggrell, S.A. Gen. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Acute and temporary inhibition of thymidine kinase in mouse bone marrow cells after low-dose exposure. Feinendegen, L.E., Mühlensiepen, H., Lindberg, C., Marx, J., Porschen, W., Booz, J. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Relat. Stud. Phys. Chem. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Competitive inhibition by procaine of carbachol-induced stimulus-secretion coupling in rat pancreatic acini. Ikei, N., Busik, J., Habara, Y., Kanno, T. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Immunological and behavioral effects of fragrance in mice. Shibata, H., Fujiwara, R., Iwamoto, M., Matsuoka, H., Yokoyama, M.M. Int. J. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Alternative treatment of the carpal tunnel syndrome. Fialová, J., Bartousek, J., Nakládalová, M. Cent. Eur. J. Public Health (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Procaine (Gerovital): no effect on the rehabilitation result in patients with back or hip disease. Rissanen, V., Rissanen, P., Tuomisto, J. Ann. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of a procaine preparation (Gerovital H3) in hospitalized geriatric patients: a double-blind study. Zwerling, I., Plutchik, R., Hotz, M., Kling, R., Rubin, L., Grossman, J., Siegel, B. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. Protection by procaine hydrochloride against reserpine-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in the rat: implications for stress-induced injury. Salim, A.S. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. Surgical management of nasopharyngeal angio-fibroma. Wu-Shan, n.u.l.l. Rhinology. (1983) [Pubmed]
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