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Chemical Compound Review

Coviracil     4-amino-5-fluoro-1-[(2R,5S)- 2...

Synonyms: Emtriva, Racivir, Emtritabine, dOTFC, Emtricitabine, ...
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Disease relevance of Racivir


Psychiatry related information on Racivir

  • METHODS: A pharmacoeconomic model (Assessment of Health Economics in Alzheimer's Disease, AHEAD) was developed based on equations that relate the probability of needing full-time care (FTC) over time to patient characteristics summarized in index scores [4].
  • As a component of antiretroviral therapy (ART), emtricitabine effectively reduces and/or maintains suppression of viral load in ART-naive adults or ART-experienced adults switching from stable combination regimens, and is generally well tolerated [5].
  • Because PGO waves are closely related to rapid eye movements, our microelectrode explorations were also aimed to some structures of the preoculomotor network, namely, the superior colliculus (SC) and parts of the central tegmental field (FTC) [6].
  • If a new directive uses the ISO/FTC methodology as a basis for regulation, it risks lending further official support to the concept of "low tar" cigarettes, which may be used by smokers as an alternative to smoking cessation [7].

High impact information on Racivir

  • LOH of all informative loci on chromosome 3p was observed in all 6 FTC, but not in FA or PTC [1].
  • Cytogenetic analysis of 26 PTC and 5 FTC showed clonal abnormalities in 9 and included -Y, +5, or inv(10)(q11.2q21.2) in PTC, and -Y or near haploidy in FTC [1].
  • DNA sequence analysis of the reverse transcriptase coding region from FTC-resistant virus revealed changes at codon 184 in the highly conserved Tyr, Met, Asp, Asp (YMDD) region [8].
  • METHODS: Intracellular anabolism of combinations of FTC and tenofovir (TFV) were studied in the human T leukaemic cell line CEM and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) [2].
  • In vitro evaluation of the anti-HIV activity and metabolic interactions of tenofovir and emtricitabine [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of Racivir


Biological context of Racivir


Anatomical context of Racivir

  • To further elucidate this, we conducted microarray expression comparison of FTC tumors and normal thyroid tissue [16].
  • The mean increase in CD4+ T-cell percentage was 2.5% (FTC) and 1.7% (3TC) [18].
  • We investigated the effects of EGF on growth, migration, and invasion in a follicular thyroid cancer that metastasized to cervical lymph nodes and the lung (FTC 133, primary; FTC 236, lymph node; and FTC 238, lung metastasis) and in a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC-UC3) [19].
  • B7-1 expression was more intense in PTC (1.4 +/- 0.2; P = 0.01) and FTC (2.6 +/- 0.2; P < 0.001) than in benign tumors (0.57 +/- 0.30) or presumably normal adjacent thyroid (0.07 +/- 0.07) and was more intense in carcinoma that contained lymphocytes (1.95 +/- 0.21) than in carcinoma that did not (1.08 +/- 0.26; P = 0.016) [20].
  • Concentrations of 524W91 in the cerebrospinal fluid were 4% +/- 0.7% of the corresponding levels in plasma [21].

Associations of Racivir with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Racivir

  • We analyzed DNA from tumor and corresponding normal tissue from 23 patients with FA and 15 patients with FTC for LOH and mutations at the MINPP1 locus [25].
  • Intracellular localization of the PDE4A cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase splice variant RD1 (RNPDE4A1A) in stably transfected human thyroid carcinoma FTC cell lines [26].
  • All mPTC and 13 out of 15 G did not express hTERT, whereas all samples of pT3-4 tumor stage of FTC, PTC, UTC and all oFTC were positive for hTERT [27].
  • Treatment with NaB for 24 or 48 h induced no change in MRP1 and MRP2 levels, but increased MDR1 expression in 8505C and FTC 238 cell lines comparably to alkaline phosphatase activity [28].
  • All 15 follicular cancers (FTC), all 6 anaplastic cancers (ATC) were IL-6/lL-6R negative; 14/15 FTC and 5/6 ATC were CD30L/CD30 negative [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Racivir

  • Emtricitabine-containing HAART was associated with a high rate of sustained virologic suppression during 4 years of follow-up [18].
  • METHODS: To compare the safety and efficacy of emtricitabine with placebo in patients with HBV, we conducted a randomized (2:1), double-blind study at 34 sites in North America, Asia, and Europe that enrolled adults between November 2000 and July 2002 who had chronic HBV infection but had never been exposed to nucleoside or nucleotide treatment [30].
  • The AHEAD model provides a relatively simple framework for the prediction of time to FTC requirement based on short-term observed data such as those from clinical trials [4].
  • To test this, we determined B7-1 and B7-2 expression by immunohistochemistry [absent (grade 0) to intense (grade 3)] in 27 papillary (PTC) and 8 follicular (FTC) thyroid carcinomas and 9 benign thyroid lesions [20].
  • The antiviral activity of oral administration of (-)FTC against WHV replication in chronically infected woodchucks, an established and predictive model for antiviral therapy against HBV, was examined in a placebo-controlled study [31].


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  2. In vitro evaluation of the anti-HIV activity and metabolic interactions of tenofovir and emtricitabine. Borroto-Esoda, K., Vela, J.E., Myrick, F., Ray, A.S., Miller, M.D. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
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  11. In vitro human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance selections with combinations of tenofovir and emtricitabine or abacavir and Lamivudine. Margot, N.A., Waters, J.M., Miller, M.D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of a combination of clevudine and emtricitabine with adenovirus-mediated delivery of gamma interferon in the woodchuck model of hepatitis B virus infection. Jacquard, A.C., Nassal, M., Pichoud, C., Ren, S., Schultz, U., Guerret, S., Chevallier, M., Werle, B., Peyrol, S., Jamard, C., Rimsky, L.T., Trepo, C., Zoulim, F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Simplification therapy with once-daily emtricitabine, didanosine, and efavirenz in HIV-1-infected adults with viral suppression receiving a protease inhibitor-based regimen: a randomized trial. Molina, J.M., Journot, V., Morand-Joubert, L., Yéni, P., Rozenbaum, W., Rancinan, C., Fournier, S., Morlat, P., Palmer, P., Dupont, B., Goujard, C., Dellamonica, P., Collin, F., Poizot-Martin, I., Chene, G. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Management of hepatitis B patients with antiviral resistance. Fung, S.K., Lok, A.S. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. A new adenoviral helper-dependent vector results in long-term therapeutic levels of human coagulation factor IX at low doses in vivo. Ehrhardt, A., Kay, M.A. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
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  19. Epidermal growth factor enhances proliferation, migration, and invasion of follicular and papillary thyroid cancer in vitro and in vivo. Hoelting, T., Siperstein, A.E., Clark, O.H., Duh, Q.Y. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Intense expression of the b7-2 antigen presentation coactivator is an unfavorable prognostic indicator for differentiated thyroid carcinoma of children and adolescents. Shah, R., Banks, K., Patel, A., Dogra, S., Terrell, R., Powers, P.A., Fenton, C., Dinauer, C.A., Tuttle, R.M., Francis, G.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and metabolism in mice and cynomolgus monkeys of (2'R,5'S-)-cis-5-fluoro-1-[2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl] cytosine, an agent active against human immunodeficiency virus and human hepatitis B virus. Frick, L.W., Lambe, C.U., St John, L., Taylor, L.C., Nelson, D.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  26. Intracellular localization of the PDE4A cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase splice variant RD1 (RNPDE4A1A) in stably transfected human thyroid carcinoma FTC cell lines. Pooley, L., Shakur, Y., Rena, G., Houslay, M.D. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of telomerase genes in thyroid carcinoma. Hoang-Vu, C., Boltze, C., Gimm, O., Poremba, C., Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B., Köhrle, J., Rath, F.W., Dralle, H. Int. J. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of sodium butyrate on doxorubicin resistance and expression of multidrug resistance genes in thyroid carcinoma cells. Massart, C., Poirier, C., Fergelot, P., Fardel, O., Gibassier, J. Anticancer Drugs (2005) [Pubmed]
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