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Chemical Compound Review

Solganal     gold(+1) cation; (2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5...

Synonyms: Solganae, Solganol, Auromyose, Solganal (TN), A0606_SIGMA, ...
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Disease relevance of (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-mercapto-6-methylol-tetrahydropyran-3,4,5-triol


High impact information on (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-mercapto-6-methylol-tetrahydropyran-3,4,5-triol

  • In vitro IKK activity was suppressed by addition of hydrophilic gold compounds, such as aurothiomalate, aurothioglucose, and AuCl3 [6].
  • Specificity for thioredoxin reductase was indicated by loss of activity in dialyzed cytosol prepared from livers of selenium-deficient rats, by inhibition with aurothioglucose at concentrations selective for thioredoxin reductase, and by stimulation with selenocystine [7].
  • By Northern blot analysis, both reg I and reg II mRNAs are detected in the normal pancreas and hyperplastic islets of aurothioglucose-treated mice, but not in the normal islets [8].
  • Aurothioglucose (Solganal), rarely produces vasomotor reactions, and may be preferred to GST in elderly RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disease or atherosclerosis [9].
  • Rats treated with aurothioglucose for 3 days exhibited a significant decrease in 5'-MD activity in liver and kidney microsomes, whereas the tissue content of 5'-MD was not affected [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-mercapto-6-methylol-tetrahydropyran-3,4,5-triol


Biological context of (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-mercapto-6-methylol-tetrahydropyran-3,4,5-triol


Anatomical context of (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-mercapto-6-methylol-tetrahydropyran-3,4,5-triol


Associations of (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-mercapto-6-methylol-tetrahydropyran-3,4,5-triol with other chemical compounds

  • 3 Crude cathepsin preparations were activated by low concentrations of dithiothreitol and also by aurothioglucose, due to the displacement of an inhibitor [23].
  • The activity of the purified enzyme was monitored by the NADPH-dependent reduction of 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB); this activity was fully inhibited by 1 microM aurothioglucose [24].
  • Exposure of cultured hepatocytes to inorganic As(III) (iAs(III)), MAs(III), or aurothioglucose (ATG, a competitive inhibitor of TR activity) for 30 min caused a concentration-dependent reduction in TR activity [25].
  • Sodium aurothiomalate and aurothioglucose selectively interfered with lymphocyte-mediated amplification of MCF release, whereas auranofin inhibited spontaneous production of monocytes and the action of MCF on synovial cells [26].
  • We investigated glucose transporters (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4) in subcellular membrane fractions of white adipose tissue (WAT) of insulin-resistant obese aurothioglucose (AuTG)- or monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated mice [27].

Gene context of (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-mercapto-6-methylol-tetrahydropyran-3,4,5-triol


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-mercapto-6-methylol-tetrahydropyran-3,4,5-triol


  1. Amyloid formation in response to beta cell stress occurs in vitro, but not in vivo, in islets of transgenic mice expressing human islet amyloid polypeptide. Westermark, G., Arora, M.B., Fox, N., Carroll, R., Chan, S.J., Westermark, P., Steiner, D.F. Mol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhibition by anti-inflammatory agents of contraction induced by epidermal growth factor-urogastrone in isolated longitudinal smooth muscle strips from guinea-pig stomach. Itoh, H., Muramatsu, I., Patel, P., Lederis, K., Hollenberg, M.D. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Anti-rheumatic compound aurothioglucose inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced HIV-1 replication in latently infected OM10.1 and Ach2 cells. Traber, K.E., Okamoto, H., Kurono, C., Baba, M., Saliou, C., Soji, T., Packer, L., Okamoto, T. Int. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. No increased mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: up to 10 years of follow up from disease onset. Kroot, E.J., van Leeuwen, M.A., van Rijswijk, M.H., Prevoo, M.L., Van 't Hof, M.A., van De Putte, L.B., van Riel, P.L. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Corticosteroids, aurothioglucose and soybean trypsin inhibitor do not prevent pemphigus antibody-induced acantholysis in vitro. Schiltz, J.R., Hu, C.H., Michel, B. Br. J. Dermatol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Thiol-reactive metal compounds inhibit NF-kappa B activation by blocking I kappa B kinase. Jeon, K.I., Jeong, J.Y., Jue, D.M. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Reduction of the ascorbyl free radical to ascorbate by thioredoxin reductase. May, J.M., Cobb, C.E., Mendiratta, S., Hill, K.E., Burk, R.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Structure, chromosomal localization, and expression of mouse reg genes, reg I and reg II. A novel type of reg gene, reg II, exists in the mouse genome. Unno, M., Yonekura, H., Nakagawara, K., Watanabe, T., Miyashita, H., Moriizumi, S., Okamoto, H., Itoh, T., Teraoka, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Acute myocardial infarction following gold sodium thiomalate induced vasomotor (nitritoid) reaction. Gottlieb, N.L., Brown, H.E. Arthritis Rheum. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. A radioimmunoassay of rat type I iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase. Santini, F., Chopra, I.J. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. HLA-DR antigens and proteinuria induced by aurothioglucose and D-penicillamine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Speerstra, F., Reekers, P., van de Putte, L.B., Vandenbroucke, J.P., Rasker, J.J., de Rooij, D.J. J. Rheumatol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of gold(I) antiarthritic drugs and related compounds on Pseudomonas putida. Rhodes, M.D., Sadler, P.J., Scawen, M.D., Silver, S. J. Inorg. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Use of corticosteroids and aurothioglucose in a pygmy goat with pemphigus foliaceus. Valdez, R.A., Gelberg, H.B., Morin, D.E., Zuckermann, F.A. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Endogenous reductants support the catalytic function of recombinant rat cyt19, an arsenic methyltransferase. Waters, S.B., Devesa, V., Del Razo, L.M., Styblo, M., Thomas, D.J. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Differentiation-inducing-factor dechlorinase, a novel cytosolic dechlorinating enzyme from Dictyostelium discoideum. Nayler, O., Insall, R., Kay, R.R. Eur. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of aurothioglucose on iron-induced rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation. Beckman, J.K., Greene, H.L. Lipids (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. The progression of neuronal, myelin, astrocytic, and immunological changes in the rat brain following exposure to aurothioglucose. Schmued, L.C. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Studies of the effect of auranofin, a new antiarthritic agent, on platelet aggregation. Nathan, I., Finkelstein, A.E., Walz, D.T., Dvilansky, A. Inflammation (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Selenium spares ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol in cultured liver cell lines under oxidant stress. Li, X., Hill, K.E., Burk, R.F., May, J.M. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular design of the voltage-dependent, anion-selective channel in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Guo, X.W., Smith, P.R., Cognon, B., D'Arcangelis, D., Dolginova, E., Mannella, C.A. J. Struct. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Inhibition of IL-6 and IL-8 induction from cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts by treatment with aurothioglucose. Yoshida, S., Kato, T., Sakurada, S., Kurono, C., Yang, J.P., Matsui, N., Soji, T., Okamoto, T. Int. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Gold pharmacokinetics in breast milk and serum of a lactating woman. Rooney, T.W., Lorber, A., Veng-Pedersen, P., Herman, R.A., Meehan, R., Hade, J., Hade, A., Furst, D.E. J. Rheumatol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Gold-containing drugs and the control of proteolytic enzymes. Rohozková, D., Steven, F.S. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Methylarsenicals and arsinothiols are potent inhibitors of mouse liver thioredoxin reductase. Lin, S., Cullen, W.R., Thomas, D.J. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Arsenicals inhibit thioredoxin reductase in cultured rat hepatocytes. Lin, S., Del Razo, L.M., Styblo, M., Wang, C., Cullen, W.R., Thomas, D.J. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of piroxicam on mononuclear cells. Comparison with other antiarthritic drugs. Gordon, D., Lewis, G.P. Inflammation (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Reduced content and preserved translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT 4) in white adipose tissue of obese mice. Machado, U.F., Shimizu, I., Saito, M. Physiol. Behav. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Aurothioglucose inhibits murine thioredoxin reductase activity in vivo. Smith, A.D., Guidry, C.A., Morris, V.C., Levander, O.A. J. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of chronic aurothioglucose treatment of rats on kidney catalase and cytochromes. Hu, M.L., Dillard, C.J., Tappel, A.L. J. Inorg. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Unique properties of auranofin as a potential anti-rheumatic drug. Barrett, M.L., Lewis, G.P. Agents Actions (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Contribution of Thioredoxin Reductase to T-Cell Mitogenesis and NF-kB DNA-Binding Promoted by Selenite. Ueno, H., Kajihara, H., Nakamura, H., Yodoi, J., Nakamuro, K. Antioxid. Redox Signal. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of aurothioglucose and dietary Se on glutathione S-transferase activities and glutathione concentrations in chick tissues. Kim, Y.S., Combs, G.F. Biological trace element research. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Plasma cell stomatitis-pharyngitis in cats: 40 cases (1973-1991). White, S.D., Rosychuk, R.A., Janik, T.A., Denerolle, P., Schultheiss, P. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of aurothioglucose on glutathione and glutathione-metabolizing and related enzymes in rat liver and kidney. Dillard, C.J., Hu, M.L., Tappel, A.L. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1987) [Pubmed]
  35. Nonspecific therapy of asthma with gold preparation and insulin. Sugihara, H. The Journal of asthma : official journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma. (1981) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of aurothioglucose on liver and kidney concentrations of copper, iron, manganese and zinc. Bogden, J.D., Jortner, B.S., Kemp, F.W., Zadzielski, E. Toxicology (1981) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of aurothioglucose and auranofin on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis. Van Riel, P.L., Larsen, A., Van de Putte, L.B., Gribnau, F.W. Clin. Rheumatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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