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Gene Review

Prdx2  -  peroxiredoxin 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AL022839, Band-8, NkefB, PRP, Peroxiredoxin-2, ...
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Disease relevance of Prdx2


Psychiatry related information on Prdx2

  • Multiple myelomas produce tumor-specific antigen (TSA) in the form of idiotype (Id) on monoclonal Ig [5].

High impact information on Prdx2

  • However, because Mtecs are known to be poor antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for tolerance to ubiquitous antigens, and very few Mtecs express a given TSA, it was unclear if central tolerance to TSA was induced directly by Mtec antigen presentation or indirectly by thymic bone marrow (BM)-derived cells via cross-presentation [6].
  • METHODS: BALB/cAnCr mice were inoculated with syngeneic parental mammary adenocarcinoma (TSA) cells in quantities sufficient to lead to tumors in all inoculated mice [7].
  • They are reduced by NADPH via Trx reductase (TR) or oxidized GSH (GSSG) reductase and further supply electrons for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, antioxidant defense, and redox regulation of signal transduction, transcription, cell growth, and apoptosis [8].
  • This unusual substrate specificity is achieved by an evolutionary conserved fusion of the TR and glutaredoxin domains [8].
  • Thus, a TSA can be transferred in vivo from myeloma, and possibly other types of cancer cells to APC for MHC class II presentation to CD4(+) T cells [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of Prdx2


Biological context of Prdx2

  • Murine thioredoxin peroxidase delays neuronal apoptosis and is expressed in areas of the brain most susceptible to hypoxic and ischemic injury [1].
  • Mouse TPx had broad tissue distribution, but its expression was especially marked in cells that metabolize oxygen molecules at high levels such as erythroid cells, renal tubular cells, cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, and certain types of neurons [1].
  • We cloned the cDNA encoding the mouse homolog of TPx from an E14.5 brain cDNA library and analyzed its distribution and function in murine tissues [1].
  • Comparison of the amino acid sequence of mouse TPx with those of other species revealed that TPx was highly conserved across all species [1].
  • Such inhibition of TR could lead to increased levels of oxidative stress in vivo, thereby increasing the virulence of several viruses including the coxsackievirus [2].

Anatomical context of Prdx2


Associations of Prdx2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Prdx2


Other interactions of Prdx2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prdx2

  • (75)Se-labeling, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activities revealed that transgenic mice have reduced (P < 0.05) liver and colon glutathione peroxidase expression, but conserved thioredoxin reductase expression compared with wild-type mice, regardless of selenium status [22].
  • Structural features of these genes and the results of RT-PCR analysis on RNAs from various tissue sources indicate that the Prx II-2 and Prx II-3 genes could be pseudogenes derived from the Prx II-1 gene by a mechanism involving retrotransposition [23].
  • The functional status of the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system during in vivo chemoprevention with Se has not been established [24].
  • Only two of 20 mice with 7-day-old TSA tumors were cured by vaccination with proliferating TSA-IL12 cells, whereas 24 of 30 mice with such tumors were cured by intraperitoneal administration of rIL-12 [7].
  • In situ hybridization showed IL-15 expression in C26/12 but not in TSA/12 tumors [25].


  1. Murine thioredoxin peroxidase delays neuronal apoptosis and is expressed in areas of the brain most susceptible to hypoxic and ischemic injury. Ichimiya, S., Davis, J.G., O'Rourke, D.M., Katsumata, M., Greene, M.I. DNA Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Aurothioglucose inhibits murine thioredoxin reductase activity in vivo. Smith, A.D., Guidry, C.A., Morris, V.C., Levander, O.A. J. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Histological recovery of the hepatocytes is based on the redox system upregulation in the animal models of mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD)1-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Kato, M., Kato, S., Abe, Y., Nishino, T., Ohama, E., Aoki, M., Itoyama, Y. Histol. Histopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Thioredoxin reductase induction coincides with melanin biosynthesis in brown and black guinea pigs and in murine melanoma cells. Schallreuter, K.U., Lemke, K.R., Hill, H.Z., Wood, J.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Dendritic cells purified from myeloma are primed with tumor-specific antigen (idiotype) and activate CD4+ T cells. Dembic, Z., Schenck, K., Bogen, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Central tolerance to tissue-specific antigens mediated by direct and indirect antigen presentation. Gallegos, A.M., Bevan, M.J. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Antitumor efficacy of adenocarcinoma cells engineered to produce interleukin 12 (IL-12) or other cytokines compared with exogenous IL-12. Cavallo, F., Signorelli, P., Giovarelli, M., Musiani, P., Modesti, A., Brunda, M.J., Colombo, M.P., Forni, G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Selenoprotein oxidoreductase with specificity for thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Sun, Q.A., Kirnarsky, L., Sherman, S., Gladyshev, V.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Azelaic acid as a competitive inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase in human melanoma cells. Schallreuter, K.U., Wood, J.M. Cancer Lett. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Potent and specific inhibition of mammalian histone deacetylase both in vivo and in vitro by trichostatin A. Yoshida, M., Kijima, M., Akita, M., Beppu, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. The thymidine kinase/ganciclovir-mediated "suicide" effect is variable in different tumor cells. Beck, C., Cayeux, S., Lupton, S.D., Dörken, B., Blankenstein, T. Hum. Gene Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Purification, characterization, and immunogenicity of a disulfide cross-linked Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate antigen, merozoite surface protein 1, expressed in Escherichia coli. Dutta, S., Ware, L.A., Barbosa, A., Ockenhouse, C.F., Lanar, D.E. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of L-glutamine antagonists on 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate levels in P388 leukemia and in murine colon adenocarcinomas in vivo. Ardalan, B., Arakawa, M., Villacorte, D., Jayaram, H., Cooney, D.A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Reactive oxygen species induced by the deletion of peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) increases the number of thymocytes resulting in the enlargement of PrxII-null thymus. Moon, E.Y., Han, Y.H., Lee, D.S., Han, Y.M., Yu, D.Y. Eur. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Thioredoxin peroxidase secreted by Fasciola hepatica induces the alternative activation of macrophages. Donnelly, S., O'Neill, S.M., Sekiya, M., Mulcahy, G., Dalton, J.P. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Disruption of redox homeostasis in the transforming growth factor-alpha/c-myc transgenic mouse model of accelerated hepatocarcinogenesis. Factor, V.M., Kiss, A., Woitach, J.T., Wirth, P.J., Thorgeirsson, S.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Double null of selenium-glutathione peroxidase-1 and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase enhances resistance of mouse primary hepatocytes to acetaminophen toxicity. Zhu, J.H., Lei, X.G. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Thioredoxin reductase and glutathione synthesis is upregulated by t-butylhydroquinone in cortical astrocytes but not in cortical neurons. Eftekharpour, E., Holmgren, A., Juurlink, B.H. Glia (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Reactive oxygen species augment B-cell-activating factor expression. Moon, E.Y., Lee, J.H., Oh, S.Y., Ryu, S.K., Kim, H.M., Kwak, H.S., Yoon, W.K. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Loss of activity of the selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase causes induction of hepatic heme oxygenase-1. Mostert, V., Hill, K.E., Burk, R.F. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of the murine gene encoding Aop2 (antioxidant protein 2) and identification of two highly related genes. Phelan, S.A., Johnson, K.A., Beier, D.R., Paigen, B. Genomics (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Both selenoproteins and low molecular weight selenocompounds reduce colon cancer risk in mice with genetically impaired selenoprotein expression. Irons, R., Carlson, B.A., Hatfield, D.L., Davis, C.D. J. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. The type II peroxiredoxin gene family of the mouse: molecular structure, expression and evolution. Lim, M.J., Chae, H.Z., Rhee, S.G., Yu, D.Y., Lee, K.K., Yeom, Y.I. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Selenium metabolism, selenoproteins and mechanisms of cancer prevention: complexities with thioredoxin reductase. Ganther, H.E. Carcinogenesis (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Antitumor effect of interleukin (IL)-12 in the absence of endogenous IFN-gamma: a role for intrinsic tumor immunogenicity and IL-15. Gri, G., Chiodoni, C., Gallo, E., Stoppacciaro, A., Liew, F.Y., Colombo, M.P. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
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