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Chemical Compound Review

Bromates     bromate

Synonyms: Bromate, Bromate ion, AG-E-03722, CHEBI:29223, BrO3(-), ...
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Disease relevance of bromate

  • Bromate intoxication: hairdressers' anuria [1].
  • Bromate intoxication with polyneuropathy [2].
  • When wild-type Escherichia coli cells were plated on media containing a fermentable sugar and an equimolar mixture of bromide and bromate, most of the cells were killed but a variety of mutants unable to produce acid from the sugar survived [3].
  • Severe acute renal failure due to bromate intoxication: report of a case and discussion of management guidelines based on a review of the literature [4].
  • Our clinical findings together with the animal study imply that clinicians should be alert to the risk of bromate exposure in hairdressers, especially those with vertigo, tinnitus, or hearing loss [5].

Psychiatry related information on bromate


High impact information on bromate

  • In contrast, hOR-expressing cells are similarly sensitive as the parental cells when oxidative DNA damage and micronuclei are induced by a mechanism independent of hOR, i.e., exposure to bromate [7].
  • At the first stage the prepared membranes collected both bromate and bromide ions, so different bromide masking agents were put in the analyzed solutions to avoid bromide collection [8].
  • Cells expressing the fusion protein EGFP-FPG repaired 8-oxoG and AP sites at accelerated rates, in particular via the single-nucleotide insertion base excision repair (BER) pathway and were resistant to mutagenicity of the oxidizing carcinogen potassium bromate [9].
  • Seven inorganic anions (bromide, nitrate, iodide, iodate, bromate, thiocyanate, chromate) could be separated over a period of 90 s, and the elution order indicated that both ion exchange and electrophoresis contributed to the separation mechanism [10].
  • This, along with a favorable electric conductivity of the carrier electrolyte solution, contributed to a 20 nmol/L (2.5 ppb) limit of detection for bromate in the CZE stage [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of bromate


Biological context of bromate

  • Bromate is a disinfection byproduct in drinking water which is formed during the ozonation of source water containing bromide [16].
  • A possible role for oxidative stress in potassium bromate (KBrO3) carcinogenesis [17].
  • This drinking water supply is typical in The Netherlands. We compared the reduction of the risk of infection with Cryptosporidium parvum by ozonation of water to the concomitant increase in risk of renal cell cancer arising from the production of bromate [18].
  • In July 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began sampling and analyzing drinking water matrices from US municipalities serving populations greater than 100,000 for low-level bromate (> 0.20 microgram/l) in support of the Information Collection Rule (ICR) using the selective anion concentration (SAC) method [19].
  • A possible role for cell proliferation in potassium bromate (KBrO3) carcinogenesis [20].

Anatomical context of bromate

  • The oxidative DNA damage induced by the renal carcinogen potassium bromate (KBrO3) in cultured mammalian cells and in a cell-free system was characterized by means of various repair endonucleases [21].
  • Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a prooxidant and carcinogen, inducing thyroid tumors [22].
  • In contrast, pH had a strong effect on bromate formation without affecting the inactivation efficiency of C. parvum oocysts for a given level of exposure to ozone [23].
  • Effects of antioxidants on induction of micronuclei in rat peripheral blood reticulocytes by potassium bromate [24].
  • Acute cytogenetic effects of potassium bromate on rat bone marrow cells in vivo [25].

Associations of bromate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of bromate


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of bromate

  • Dose-response studies on the carcinogenicity of potassium bromate in F344 rats after long-term oral administration [35].
  • The use of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) on-line coupled with isotachophoresis (ITP) sample pretreatment (ITP-CZE) on a poly(methylmethacrylate) chip, provided with two separation channels in the column-coupling (CC) arrangement and on-column conductivity detection sensors, to the determination of bromate in drinking water was investigated [11].
  • Early diagnosis of bromate intoxication requires an appreciation that it commonly occurs in hairdressers, may be accompanied by deafness, and may present with insidious anuria [1].
  • A post-column reagent (PCR) method for bromate analysis in drinking water with a method detection limit (MDL) and method reporting limit (MRL) of 0.1 and 0.5 microg/l, respectively, has been developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for future publication as EPA Method 317 [36].
  • Using a modified comet assay protocol with FPG protein, a DNA repair enzyme which specifically nicks DNA at sites of 8-oxoguanines and formamidopyrimidines, we detected oxidative DNA base damage only after potassium bromate treatment [30].


  1. Bromate intoxication: hairdressers' anuria. Kutom, A., Bazilinski, N.G., Magana, L., Dunea, G. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Bromate intoxication with polyneuropathy. Wang, V., Lin, K.P., Tsai, C.P., Kao, K.P. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Proton suicide: general method for direct selection of sugar transport- and fermentation-defective mutants. Winkelman, J.W., Clark, D.P. J. Bacteriol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Severe acute renal failure due to bromate intoxication: report of a case and discussion of management guidelines based on a review of the literature. De Vriese, A., Vanholder, R., Lameire, N. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Toxic effects of potassium bromate and thioglycolate on vestibuloocular reflex systems of Guinea pigs and humans. Young, Y.H., Chuu, J.J., Liu, S.H., Lin-Shiau, S.Y. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Bromate-induced ototoxicity. Campbell, K.C. Toxicology (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Human cytochrome P450 reductase can act as a source of endogenous oxidative DNA damage and genetic instability. Heine, T., Glatt, H., Epe, B. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Bromate Determination in Water after Membrane Complexation and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis. Hatzistavros, V.S., Koulouridakis, P.E., Aretaki, I.I., Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.G. Anal. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Accelerated repair and reduced mutagenicity of oxidative DNA damage in human bladder cells expressing the E. coli FPG protein. Ropolo, M., Geroldi, A., Degan, P., Andreotti, V., Zupo, S., Poggi, A., Reed, A., Kelley, M.R., Frosina, G. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Latex-coated polymeric monolithic ion-exchange stationary phases. 1. Anion-exchange capillary electrochromatography and in-line sample preconcentration in capillary electrophoresis. Hutchinson, J.P., Zakaria, P., Bowie, A.R., Macka, M., Avdalovic, N., Haddad, P.R. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Determination of bromate in drinking water by zone electrophoresis-isotachophoresis on a column-coupling chip with conductivity detection. Bodor, R., Kaniansky, D., Masár, M., Silleová, K., Stanislawski, B. Electrophoresis (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. hOGG1 recognizes oxidative damage using the comet assay with greater specificity than FPG or ENDOIII. Smith, C.C., O'Donovan, M.R., Martin, E.A. Mutagenesis (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparative efficacy of oligonol, catechin and (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate in modulating the potassium bromate-induced renal toxicity in rats. Nishioka, H., Fujii, H., Sun, B., Aruoma, O.I. Toxicology (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Quantitation of dityrosine in wheat flour and dough by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Hanft, F., Koehler, P. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The detrimental effects of potassium bromate and thioglycolate on auditory brainstem response of guinea pigs. Chuu, J.J., Hsu, C.J., Lin-Shiau, S.Y. The Chinese journal of physiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Isotope dilution analysis of bromate in drinking water matrixes by ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection. Creed, J.T., Brockhoff, C.A. Anal. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. A possible role for oxidative stress in potassium bromate (KBrO3) carcinogenesis. Umemura, T., Sai, K., Takagi, A., Hasegawa, R., Kurokawa, Y. Carcinogenesis (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Balancing the risks and benefits of drinking water disinfection: disability adjusted life-years on the scale. Havelaar, A.H., De Hollander, A.E., Teunis, P.F., Evers, E.G., Van Kranen, H.J., Versteegh, J.F., Van Koten, J.E., Slob, W. Environ. Health Perspect. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Analysis of 500-ng/l levels of bromate in drinking water by direct-injection suppressed ion chromatography coupled with a single, pneumatically delivered post-column reagent. Wagner, H.P., Pepich, B.V., Hautman, D.P., Munch, D.J. Journal of chromatography. A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. A possible role for cell proliferation in potassium bromate (KBrO3) carcinogenesis. Umemura, T., Sai, K., Takagi, A., Hasegawa, R., Kurokawa, Y. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Oxidative DNA damage induced by potassium bromate under cell-free conditions and in mammalian cells. Ballmaier, D., Epe, B. Carcinogenesis (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Comparison of potential protective effects of melatonin, indole-3-propionic acid, and propylthiouracil against lipid peroxidation caused by potassium bromate in the thyroid gland. Karbownik, M., Stasiak, M., Zasada, K., Zygmunt, A., Lewinski, A. J. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Simultaneous prediction of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation and bromate formation during ozonation of synthetic waters. Kim, J.H., Von Gunten, U., Mariñas, B.J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of antioxidants on induction of micronuclei in rat peripheral blood reticulocytes by potassium bromate. Sai, K., Hayashi, M., Takagi, A., Hasegawa, R., Sofuni, T., Kurokawa, Y. Mutat. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Acute cytogenetic effects of potassium bromate on rat bone marrow cells in vivo. Fujie, K., Shimazu, H., Matsuda, M., Sugiyama, T. Mutat. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Oral administration of the renal carcinogen, potassium bromate, specifically produces 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in rat target organ DNA. Kasai, H., Nishimura, S., Kurokawa, Y., Hayashi, Y. Carcinogenesis (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Generation of active oxygen species in vitro by the interaction of potassium bromate with rat kidney cell. Sai, K., Uchiyama, S., Ohno, Y., Hasegawa, R., Kurokawa, Y. Carcinogenesis (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Design of a photocatalyst for bromate decomposition: surface modification of TiO2 by pseudo-boehmite. Noguchi, H., Nakajima, A., Watanabe, T., Hashimoto, K. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Germanium dioxide as internal standard for simplified trace determination of bromate, bromide, iodate and iodide by on-line coupling ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Eickhorst, T., Seubert, A. Journal of chromatography. A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparative evaluation of the genotoxic properties of potassium bromate and potassium superoxide in V79 Chinese hamster cells. Speit, G., Haupter, S., Schütz, P., Kreis, P. Mutat. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Bromate induces loss of heterozygosity in the thymidine kinase gene of L5178Y/Tk(+/-)-3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. Harrington-Brock, K., Collard, D.D., Chen, T. Mutat. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Contribution of nitric oxide to potassium bromate-induced elevation of methaemoglobin concentration in mouse blood. Watanabe, S., Togashi, S., Fukui, T. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. The study using wild-type and Ogg1 knockout mice exposed to potassium bromate shows no tumor induction despite an extensive accumulation of 8-hydroxyguanine in kidney DNA. Arai, T., Kelly, V.P., Minowa, O., Noda, T., Nishimura, S. Toxicology (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Mutations in the VHL gene from potassium bromate-induced rat clear cell renal tumors. Shiao, Y.H., Kamata, S.I., Li, L.M., Hooth, M.J., DeAngelo, A.B., Anderson, L.M., Wolf, D.C. Cancer Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Dose-response studies on the carcinogenicity of potassium bromate in F344 rats after long-term oral administration. Kurokawa, Y., Aoki, S., Matsushima, Y., Takamura, N., Imazawa, T., Hayashi, Y. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  36. Eliminating the chlorite interference in US Environmental Protection Agency Method 317.0 permits analysis of trace bromate levels in all drinking water matrices. Wagner, H.P., Pepich, B.V., Hautman, D.P., Munch, D.J. Journal of chromatography. A. (2000) [Pubmed]
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