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Gene Review

PLAC1  -  placenta-specific 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CT92, OOSP2L, Placenta-specific protein 1
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Disease relevance of PLAC1

  • Using BeWo choriocarcinoma cells as a trophoblast model, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) stimulated steady-state PLAC1 mRNA expression approximately twofold by Northern analysis and quantitative real-time PCR [1].
  • Lower maternal PLAC1 mRNA in pregnancies complicated with vaginal bleeding (threatened abortion <20 weeks) and a surviving fetus [2].
  • Plasma PLAC1 and GCM1 mRNAs appear promising as noninvasively measurable molecular markers for pre-eclampsia [3].
  • Lambda plac DNA induced much higher enzyme activities than infective phage particles [4].
  • The total symptom score (TSS) (pain, burning, paresthesia, and numbness) in the feet decreased significantly from baseline to day 19 in ALA 1,200 and ALA 600 vs. PLAC [5].
  • RNAi-mediated silencing of PLAC1 in MCF-7 and BT-549 breast cancer cells profoundly impairs motility, migration, and invasion and induces a G1-S cell cycle block with nearly complete abrogation of proliferation [6].

Psychiatry related information on PLAC1

  • Although reaction times were longer after Trp (mean+/-SD, Plac-Neut 669 +/- 163 ms, I 715 +/- 174 ms, P < 0.01; Trp-Neut 712 +/- 193 ms, I 761 +/- 198 ms, P < 0.05), the Stroop effect was not significantly different between Plac and Trp [7].

High impact information on PLAC1


Chemical compound and disease context of PLAC1


Biological context of PLAC1

  • These results make PLAC1 a marker for placental development, with a possible role in the establishment of the mother-fetus interface [16].
  • A novel human X-linked gene shows placenta-specific expression and has been named PLAC1 [16].
  • These studies were undertaken to define the cellular location of the mRNA for the human orthologue, PLAC1, within the human placenta, and to examine its expression throughout gestation [1].
  • PLAC1 mRNA in Maternal Blood Correlates with Doppler Waveform in Uterine Arteries in Normal Pregnancies at the Second and Third Trimester [17].
  • Recently, PLAC1, Oosp1-3, Papillote and CG16798 proteins were identified that share sequence homology with the N-terminal half of the ZP domain (ZP-N), but not with its C-terminal half (ZP-C) [18].

Anatomical context of PLAC1

  • Agents known to be relevant to trophoblast differentiation were then tested for the ability to influence PLAC1 expression [19].
  • Using an (35)S-labeled riboprobe, PLAC1 expression was trophoblast-specific at all stages of gestation (8-41 weeks); no expression was seen in cells within the stromal compartment or decidua [1].
  • In situ hybridization studies with the antisense mRNA during mouse embryogenesis detect Plac1 expression from 7.5 dpc (days postcoitum) to 14.5 dpc in ectoplacental cone, giant cells, and labyrinthine trophoblasts [16].
  • Erythrocyte Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity was lowest in the PLAC group [20].
  • SUBJECTS: Twenty healthy non-diabetic male volunteers (27 +/- 5 y, 72 +/- 9 kg, 20 +/- 7% body fat; means +/- s.d.) fed a weight maintenance diet and randomly assigned to METH (n = 10) or PLAC (n = 10) treatment [21].

Associations of PLAC1 with chemical compounds

  • The first tube contained the active PLAC, methyl nicotinate [22].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a double-blind, cross-over study, eight subjects ingested L: -tryptophan (Trp) or placebo (Plac) on two separate test days [7].
  • On each session they received oral doses of placebo (PLAC), diazepam in a rapid onset condition (FAST), or diazepam in a slow onset condition (SLOW) [23].
  • Plasma glucose levels were significantly reduced after immersion in both trials (P less than 0.05), this decrease being greater in NIC (1.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/l) than in PLAC (0.7 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, P less than 0.05) [24].
  • In untrained subjects VT at maximal exercise was reduced from 2.30 l/breath on PLAC to 1.99 on PROP and 2.12 on ATEN [25].

Other interactions of PLAC1

  • Trophoblast-specific expression throughout gestation and responsiveness to KGF are consistent with a fundamental role for PLAC1 at the maternal-fetal interface [1].
  • Characterization of the Placenta Specific Bovine Mammalian Achaete Scute-like Homologue 2 (Mash2) Gene [26].
  • Median concentrations of PLAC1 and GCM1 mRNA in plasma of pre-eclamptic subjects respectively were 1625 and 2141 copies/ml, significantly higher than 195 and 881 copies/ml, the values for controls (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.001) [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PLAC1

  • Consistent with these observations, quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that PLAC1 mRNA increases more than 300-fold during cytotrophoblast differentiation in culture to form syncytiotrophoblasts [19].
  • METHODS: Consecutive patients needing mechanical ventilation for 48 h or more were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with three arms: CHX, CHX/COL, and placebo (PLAC) [27].
  • After 2 weeks budesonide (BUD) or placebo (PLAC) pretreatment bronchoscopy was performed 2 days before (day -2) and 6 days after (day 6) RV16 inoculation (on days 0 and 1) [28].
  • EEG mapping demonstrated in NIC-treated SDAT and MID patients a significant decrease in delta and theta, increase in alpha 2 and beta activity and an acceleration of the centroid of the total power spectrum as compared with pretreatment, while opposite changes occurred in PLAC-treated SDAT and MID patients [29].
  • The concentration of ara-C and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (ara-U), metabolites of PLAC, were measured by radioimmunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass fragmentography, respectively [14].


  1. PLAC1, a trophoblast-specific gene, is expressed throughout pregnancy in the human placenta and modulated by keratinocyte growth factor. Fant, M., Weisoly, D.L., Cocchia, M., Huber, R., Khan, S., Lunt, T., Schlessinger, D. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Lower maternal PLAC1 mRNA in pregnancies complicated with vaginal bleeding (threatened abortion <20 weeks) and a surviving fetus. Farina, A., Rizzo, N., Concu, M., Banzola, I., Sekizawa, A., Grotti, S., Carinci, P. Clin. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased plasma mRnas of placenta-specific 1 (PLAC1) and glial cells-missing 1 (GCM1) in mothers with pre-eclampsia. Fujito, N., Samura, O., Miharu, N., Tanigawa, M., Hyodo, M., Kudo, Y. Hiroshima J. Med. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Gene transfer to human cells: transducing phage lambda plac gene expression in GMI-gangliosidosis fibroblasts. Horst, J., Kluge, F., Beyreuther, K., Gerok, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic peripheral and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. Ziegler, D., Gries, F.A. Diabetes (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. A placenta-specific gene ectopically activated in many human cancers is essentially involved in malignant cell processes. Koslowski, M., Sahin, U., Mitnacht-Kraus, R., Seitz, G., Huber, C., Türeci, O. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of elevated plasma tryptophan on brain activation associated with the Stroop task. Morgan, R.M., Parry, A.M., Arida, R.M., Matthews, P.M., Davies, B., Castell, L.M. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Gender-based mortality follow-up from the Program on the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias (POSCH) and meta-analysis of lipid intervention trials. Women in POSCH and other lipid trials. Buchwald, H., Campos, C.T., Boen, J.R., Nguyen, P., Williams, S.E., Lau, J., Chalmers, T.C. Ann. Surg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Coordinate control of the alpha- and beta-subunit genes of human chorionic gonadotropin by trophoblast-specific element-binding protein. Steger, D.J., Büscher, M., Hecht, J.H., Mellon, P.L. Mol. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. A randomized double-blind trial of prednisolone alone or with azathioprine in myasthenia gravis. Myasthenia Gravis Study Group. Palace, J., Newsom-Davis, J., Lecky, B. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Pravastatin. A reappraisal of its pharmacological properties and clinical effectiveness in the management of coronary heart disease. Haria, M., McTavish, D. Drugs (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Production of human papillomavirus type 16 L1 virus-like particles by recombinant Lactobacillus casei cells. Aires, K.A., Cianciarullo, A.M., Carneiro, S.M., Villa, L.L., Boccardo, E., Pérez-Martinez, G., Perez-Arellano, I., Oliveira, M.L., Ho, P.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. A randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of nebulized therapy with epinephrine compared with albuterol and saline in infants hospitalized for acute viral bronchiolitis. Patel, H., Platt, R.W., Pekeles, G.S., Ducharme, F.M. J. Pediatr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Clinical pharmacology of N4-palmitoyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine in patients with hematologic malignancies. Ueda, T., Nakamura, T., Kagawa, D., Uchida, M., Domae, N., Sugiyama, M., Ueda, Y., Sasada, M., Uchino, H. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Phase II double-blind randomized study of lonidamine and radiotherapy in epidermoid carcinoma of the lung. Privitera, G., Ciottoli, G.B., Patanè, C., Palmucci, T., Tafuri, G., Marletta, F., De Luca, B., Magnani, F., De Gregorio, M., Greco, S. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. PLAC1, an Xq26 gene with placenta-specific expression. Cocchia, M., Huber, R., Pantano, S., Chen, E.Y., Ma, P., Forabosco, A., Ko, M.S., Schlessinger, D. Genomics (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. PLAC1 mRNA in Maternal Blood Correlates with Doppler Waveform in Uterine Arteries in Normal Pregnancies at the Second and Third Trimester. Farina, A., Concu, M., Banzola, I., Tempesta, A., Vagnoni, S., Gabrielli, S., Mattioli, M., Carinci, P., Pilu, G., Morano, D., Rizzo, N. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. The PLAC1-homology region of the ZP domain is sufficient for protein polymerisation. Jovine, L., Janssen, W.G., Litscher, E.S., Wassarman, P.M. BMC Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. PLAC1 expression increases during trophoblast differentiation: evidence for regulatory interactions with the fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) axis. Massabbal, E., Parveen, S., Weisoly, D.L., Nelson, D.M., Smith, S.D., Fant, M. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Copper status of very low birth weight infants during the first 12 months of infancy. L'Abbé, M.R., Friel, J.K. Pediatr. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Acute and prolonged administration of glucocorticoids (methylprednisolone) does not affect plasma leptin concentration in humans. Tataranni, P.A., Pratley, R., Maffei, M., Ravussin, E. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the application of capsaicin cream in chronic distal painful polyneuropathy. Low, P.A., Opfer-Gehrking, T.L., Dyck, P.J., Litchy, W.J., O'Brien, P.C. Pain (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Subjective and behavioral effects of diazepam depend on its rate of onset. de Wit, H., Dudish, S., Ambre, J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Free fatty acid availability and temperature regulation in cold water. Martineau, L., Jacobs, I. J. Appl. Physiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Beta-blockade reduces tidal volume during heavy exercise in trained and untrained men. Joyner, M.J., Jilka, S.M., Taylor, J.A., Kalis, J.K., Nittolo, J., Hicks, R.W., Lohman, T.G., Wilmore, J.H. J. Appl. Physiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Characterization of the Placenta Specific Bovine Mammalian Achaete Scute-like Homologue 2 (Mash2) Gene. Arnold, D.R., Lefebvre, R., Smith, L.C. Placenta (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Oral decontamination with chlorhexidine reduces the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Koeman, M., van der Ven, A.J., Hak, E., Joore, H.C., Kaasjager, K., de Smet, A.G., Ramsay, G., Dormans, T.P., Aarts, L.P., de Bel, E.E., Hustinx, W.N., van der Tweel, I., Hoepelman, A.M., Bonten, M.J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Experimental rhinovirus 16 infection increases intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in bronchial epithelium of asthmatics regardless of inhaled steroid treatment. Grünberg, K., Sharon, R.F., Hiltermann, T.J., Brahim, J.J., Dick, E.C., Sterk, P.J., Van Krieken, J.H. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Nicergoline in senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical and EEG/ERP mapping study. Saletu, B., Paulus, E., Linzmayer, L., Anderer, P., Semlitsch, H.V., Grünberger, J., Wicke, L., Neuhold, A., Podreka, I. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1995) [Pubmed]
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