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Chemical Compound Review

glycyrrhizin     6-[(11-carboxy- 4,4,6a,6b,8a,11,14b...

Synonyms: Glycrrhizin, AGN-PC-002LVE, NSC-167409, NSC-234419, NSC167409, ...
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Disease relevance of glycyrrhizin


Psychiatry related information on glycyrrhizin

  • Although the decrease in locomotor activity was partially blocked and adaptation to repetitive stress was enhanced in the rats given glycyrrhizic acid for 10 days, this was not seen in rats treated with glycyrrhizic acid for 4 or 9 weeks [5].
  • To clarify the dose-response and the time-response relationship between liquorice consumption and rise in blood pressure and explore the inter-individual variance this intervention study was designed and executed in research laboratories at University hospitals in Iceland and Sweden [6].
  • Since scopolamine-induced amnesia was reversed by liquorice, it is possible that the beneficial effect on learning and memory was due to facilitation of cholinergic-transmission in mouse brain [7].
  • Although she was apparently in remission from anorexia nervosa, the diet was found to be markedly abnormal with an excessive ingestion of liquorice and a low potassium salt intake [8].

High impact information on glycyrrhizin


Chemical compound and disease context of glycyrrhizin


Biological context of glycyrrhizin


Anatomical context of glycyrrhizin


Associations of glycyrrhizin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of glycyrrhizin

  • Glycyrrhizic acid also inhibited both renal 11 beta HSD mRNA and activity and levels of Na,K-ATPase alpha 1/beta 1 mRNA [30].
  • Glycyrrhizin, one of the chemical constituents of hochu-ekki-to, reduced supernatant virus titers dose-dependently.Conclusion and implications:Hochu-ekki-to inhibited RV14 infection by decreasing ICAM-1 and by blocking entry of viral RNA into the cytoplasm from the endosomes, in airway epithelial cells [31].
  • Glycyrrhizin as a promoter of the late signal transduction for interleukin-2 production by splenic lymphocytes [32].
  • Reduction in UFE excretion is seen following liquorice ingestion and in both variants of AME, though it is more profound in AME1 [33].
  • Administration of glycyrrhizic acid in vivo (> 100 mg/kg for 4 days) resulted in inhibition of 11 beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity and a decrease in mRNA levels for the glucocorticoid-dependent enzyme, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, whilst levels of the glucocorticoid-independent enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase were unchanged [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of glycyrrhizin


  1. Glycyrrhizic acid inhibits virus growth and inactivates virus particles. Pompei, R., Flore, O., Marccialis, M.A., Pani, A., Loddo, B. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Distribution of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase along the rabbit nephron. Bonvalet, J.P., Doignon, I., Blot-Chabaud, M., Pradelles, P., Farman, N. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Licking latency with licorice. Cohen, J.I. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice for peptic ulcer. Glick, L. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Short- and long-term effects of glycyrrhizic acid in repetitive stress. Ainsah, O., Nabishah, B.M., Osman, C.B., Khalid, B.A. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Liquorice-induced rise in blood pressure: a linear dose-response relationship. Sigurjónsdóttir HA, n.u.l.l., Franzson, L., Manhem, K., Ragnarsson, J., Sigurdsson, G., Wallerstedt, S. Journal of human hypertension. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Memory enhancing activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mice. Dhingra, D., Parle, M., Kulkarni, S.K. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Anorexia nervosa, liquorice and hypokalaemic myopathy. Nightingale, S., Smith, P.E., Turnbull, D.M. Postgraduate medical journal. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Glycyrrhizic acid alters Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency, triggering p53-mediated apoptosis in transformed B lymphocytes. Curreli, F., Friedman-Kien, A.E., Flore, O. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Liquorice consumption and salivary testosterone concentrations. Josephs, R.A., Guinn, J.S., Harper, M.L., Askari, F. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Liquorice and blood pressure. Brandon, S. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Potentiation of hydrocortisone activity in skin by glycyrrhetinic acid. Teelucksingh, S., Mackie, A.D., Burt, D., McIntyre, M.A., Brett, L., Edwards, C.R. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Mineralocorticoid activity of liquorice: 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency comes of age. Stewart, P.M., Wallace, A.M., Valentino, R., Burt, D., Shackleton, C.H., Edwards, C.R. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. The antinatriuretic and kaliuretic effects of the glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol following pretreatment with carbenoxolone sodium (a liquorice derivative) in the adrenalectomized rat. Souness, G.W., Morris, D.J. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. The pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhizic acid evaluated by physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. Ploeger, B., Mensinga, T., Sips, A., Seinen, W., Meulenbelt, J., DeJongh, J. Drug Metab. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Desensitization by glycyrrhetinic acid of other stimulatory substance-induced increases in intracellular calcium in a variety of cell types. Hayashi, Y., Hirai, S., Negishi, M., Okumura, T., Ichikawa, A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Birth outcome in relation to licorice consumption during pregnancy. Strandberg, T.E., Järvenpää, A.L., Vanhanen, H., McKeigue, P.M. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid on dexamethasone-induced changes in histamine synthesis of mouse mastocytoma P-815 cells and in histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Imanishi, N., Kawai, H., Hayashi, Y., Yatsunami, K., Ichikawa, A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. The herbal medicine sho-saiko-to inhibits proliferation of cancer cell lines by inducing apoptosis and arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Yano, H., Mizoguchi, A., Fukuda, K., Haramaki, M., Ogasawara, S., Momosaki, S., Kojiro, M. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Biochemical and histological effects of 26 weeks of glycyrrhizin treatment in chronic hepatitis C: A randomized phase II trial. Orlent, H., Hansen, B.E., Willems, M., Brouwer, J.T., Huber, R., Kullak-Ublick, G.A., Gerken, G., Zeuzem, S., Nevens, F., Tielemans, W.C., Zondervan, P.E., Lagging, M., Westin, J., Schalm, S.W. J. Hepatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of glycyrrhizin on hepatitis B surface antigen: a biochemical and morphological study. Takahara, T., Watanabe, A., Shiraki, K. J. Hepatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Hydrolysis of glycyrrhizin to 18 beta-glycyrrhetyl monoglucuronide by lysosomal beta-D-glucuronidase of animal livers. Akao, T., Akao, T., Hattori, M., Kanaoka, M., Yamamoto, K., Namba, T., Kobashi, K. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Human cervical tissue metabolizes the tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, via alpha-hydroxylation and carbonyl reduction pathways. Prokopczyk, B., Trushin, N., Leszczynska, J., Waggoner, S.E., El-Bayoumy, K. Carcinogenesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Interferons specifically suppress the translation from the internal ribosome entry site of hepatitis C virus through a double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-independent pathway. Kato, J., Kato, N., Moriyama, M., Goto, T., Taniguchi, H., Shiratori, Y., Omata, M. J. Infect. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Enhancement of interferon-gamma production in glycyrrhizin-treated human peripheral lymphocytes in response to concanavalin A and to surface antigen of hepatitis B virus. Shinada, M., Azuma, M., Kawai, H., Sazaki, K., Yoshida, I., Yoshida, T., Suzutani, T., Sakuma, T. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. The influence of glycyrrhetinic acid on plasma cortisol and cortisone in healthy young volunteers. MacKenzie, M.A., Hoefnagels, W.H., Jansen, R.W., Benraad, T.J., Kloppenborg, P.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Kinetics and dynamics of orally administered 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid in humans. Krähenbühl, S., Hasler, F., Frey, B.M., Frey, F.J., Brenneisen, R., Krapf, R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Ocular adverse effects associated with systemic medications : recognition and management. Santaella, R.M., Fraunfelder, F.W. Drugs (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Functional contribution of specific brain areas to absence seizures: role of thalamic gap-junctional coupling. Proulx, E., Leshchenko, Y., Kokarovtseva, L., Khokhotva, V., El-Beheiry, M., Snead, O.C., Perez Velazquez, J.L. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Regulation of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphate subunit gene expression by corticosteroids and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. Whorwood, C.B., Ricketts, M.L., Stewart, P.M. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Hochu-ekki-to inhibits rhinovirus infection in human tracheal epithelial cells. Yamaya, M., Sasaki, T., Yasuda, H., Inoue, D., Suzuki, T., Asada, M., Yoshida, M., Seki, T., Iwasaki, K., Nishimura, H., Nakayama, K. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Glycyrrhizin as a promoter of the late signal transduction for interleukin-2 production by splenic lymphocytes. Zhang, Y.H., Isobe, K., Nagase, F., Lwin, T., Kato, M., Hamaguchi, M., Yokochi, T., Nakashima, I. Immunology (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Urinary free cortisone and the assessment of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in man. Palermo, M., Shackleton, C.H., Mantero, F., Stewart, P.M. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Adrenal 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Shimojo, M., Condon, J., Whorwood, C.B., Stewart, P.M. Endocr. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. An unusual cause of hypokalemic muscle weakness. Valeriano, J., Tucker, P., Kattah, J. Neurology (1983) [Pubmed]
  36. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for glycyrrhizin using anti-glycyrrhizin monoclonal antibody and an eastern blotting technique for glucuronides of glycyrrhetic acid. Shan, S., Tanaka, H., Shoyama, Y. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Reduction of myocardial infarct size in vivo by carbohydrate-based glycomimetics. Kilgore, K.S., Tanhehco, E.J., Park, J.L., Naylor, K.B., Anderson, M.B., Lucchesi, B.R. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Review article: glycyrrhizin as a potential treatment for chronic hepatitis C. van Rossum, T.G., Vulto, A.G., de Man, R.A., Brouwer, J.T., Schalm, S.W. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
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