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Gene Review

CMA1  -  chymase 1, mast cell

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Alpha-chymase, CYH, CYM, Chymase, MCT1, ...
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Disease relevance of CMA1

  • OBJECTIVE: It has been suspected that the mast cell chymase gene (CMA1) is important for the generation of angiotensin II and therefore might be associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension [1].
  • METHODS: We sequenced the CMA1 locus in 24 unrelated healthy individuals with serum IgE levels <50% percentile and 24 individuals with atopic eczema and serum IgE levels >90% percentile [2].
  • A significant association was found between CMA1 genotypes and total IgE levels in subjects with self-reported eczema that remained significant after correction for multiple testing (median total serum IgE GG 297 kU/L, GA 144 kU/L, AA 48.4 kU/L, Pc=0.0032) [3].
  • Chymase Gene (CMA1) Polymorphisms in Dutch and Japanese Sarcoidosis Patients [4].
  • However, the association between CMA1 -526 C/T and iVC in the Dutch patients suggests that chymase may modify the functional outcome of pulmonary sarcoidosis [4].

High impact information on CMA1


Chemical compound and disease context of CMA1


Biological context of CMA1


Anatomical context of CMA1

  • Cellular invasion assays correlate with gene expression and zymography experiments identifying both Ox and MCT-1 as able to inhibit invasion of metastatic cancer cell lines through matrigel at nanomolar concentrations, with MCT-1 more effective than Ox in 2 of the 3 cancer cell lines assessed [11].
  • At this stage, less than 10% of vessels in the ventricular layer expressed MCT1, whereas all blood vessels walls showed this immunoreactivity at the 26th gestational week [12].
  • We investigated the immunocytochemical expression of two monocarboxylate transporters, MCT1 and MCT2, in the human visual cortex between 13 and 26 post-ovulatory weeks [12].
  • Our findings suggest that monocarboxylate trafficking between vessels (MCT1), astrocytes (MCT2) and some postmitotic neurons (MCT1) could develop gradually toward 20 gestational weeks (g.w.). These data suggest that lactate or other monocarboxylates could represent a significant energy source for the human visual cortex at this early stage [12].
  • MCT1 was present in erythrocytes and on the basolateral surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells [8].

Associations of CMA1 with chemical compounds

  • Immunofluorescence microscopy shows that MCT1 expression is restricted to the intercalated disk region, yet the rate of lactate transport in this region is slower than in the center of the cell, where there is no MCT1 [13].
  • MCT1, but not MCT2, was sensitive to organomercurial thiol reagents such as p-chloromercuribenzoic acid [8].
  • The mucosal MCT1 was localized in the basolateral membrane of enterocytes, while slc5a8 was restricted to the apical cell membrane, suggesting the involvement of slc5a8 in the uptake of luminal SCFA, and of MCT1 in the efflux of SCFA and monocarboxylate metabolites towards blood circulation [14].
  • We analyzed DNA duplexes modified at central guanine residues by monofunctional Ru(II) arene complexes [(eta(6)-arene)Ru(II)(en)(Cl)](+) (arene = tetrahydroanthracene or p-cymene, Ru-THA or Ru-CYM, respectively) [15].
  • We have previously described a novel series of potent blockers of the monocarboxylate transporter, MCT1, which show potent immunomodulatory activity in an assay measuring inhibition of PMA/ionomycin-induced human PBMC proliferation [16].
  • Exogenous peroxynitrite but not hydrogen peroxide also resulted in chymase activation in unwounded monolayers [17].

Other interactions of CMA1

  • 2. The current work identifies the human mast cell chymase gene (CMA1) as the fourth protease in this cluster and maps the gene to within 150 kb of the cathepsin G gene [10].
  • Starting at the 19th week of gestation, sparse MCT1 positive cell bodies were detected, some of them co-localized with MAP2 immunoreactivity [12].
  • The results of these experiments suggest the presence of 2 different transporter isoforms in heart cells, at least one of which is different from the cloned MCT1 and MCT2 [13].
  • For the CMA1, AGT and AT2R1 genes we have not found significant differences in allele/genotype distribution [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CMA1


  1. Heterozygous disruption of CMA1 does not affect blood pressure. Ono, K., Kokubo, Y., Mannami, T., Inamoto, N., Shioji, K., Iwai, N. J. Hypertens. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Association study of mast cell chymase polymorphisms with atopy. Weidinger, S., Rümmler, L., Klopp, N., Wagenpfeil, S., Baurecht, H.J., Fischer, G., Holle, R., Gauger, A., Schäfer, T., Jakob, T., Ollert, M., Behrendt, H., Wichmann, H.E., Ring, J., Illig, T. Allergy (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Polymorphism of the mast cell chymase gene (CMA1) promoter region: lack of association with asthma but association with serum total immunoglobulin E levels in adult atopic dermatitis. Iwanaga, T., McEuen, A., Walls, A.F., Clough, J.B., Keith, T.P., Rorke, S., Barton, S.J., Holgate, S.T., Holloway, J.W. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Chymase Gene (CMA1) Polymorphisms in Dutch and Japanese Sarcoidosis Patients. Kruit, A., Grutters, J.C., Ruven, H.J., Sato, H., Izumi, T., Nagai, S., Welsh, K.I., du Bois, R.M., van den Bosch, J.M. Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Systematic identification and functional screens of uncharacterized proteins associated with eukaryotic ribosomal complexes. Fleischer, T.C., Weaver, C.M., McAfee, K.J., Jennings, J.L., Link, A.J. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. A novel cis-acting element in promoters of plant B-type cyclin genes activates M phase-specific transcription. Ito, M., Iwase, M., Kodama, H., Lavisse, P., Komamine, A., Nishihama, R., Machida, Y., Watanabe, A. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. MCT-1 Protein Interacts with the Cap Complex and Modulates Messenger RNA Translational Profiles. Reinert, L.S., Shi, B., Nandi, S., Mazan-Mamczarz, K., Vitolo, M., Bachman, K.E., He, H., Gartenhaus, R.B. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. cDNA cloning of MCT2, a second monocarboxylate transporter expressed in different cells than MCT1. Garcia, C.K., Brown, M.S., Pathak, R.K., Goldstein, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. The H+-Linked Monocarboxylate Transporter (MCT1/SLC16A1): A Potential Therapeutic Target for High-Risk Neuroblastoma. Fang, J., Quinones, Q.J., Holman, T.L., Morowitz, M.J., Wang, Q., Zhao, H., Sivo, F., Maris, J.M., Wahl, M.L. Mol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The human mast cell chymase gene (CMA1): mapping to the cathepsin G/granzyme gene cluster and lineage-restricted expression. Caughey, G.H., Schaumberg, T.H., Zerweck, E.H., Butterfield, J.H., Hanson, R.D., Silverman, G.A., Ley, T.J. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Novel inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinase expression in metastatic cancer cell lines. Cakarovski, K., Leung, J.Y., Restall, C., Carin-Carlson, A., Yang, E., Perlmutter, P., Anderson, R., Medcalf, R., Dear, A.E. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunocytochemical expression of monocarboxylate transporters in the human visual cortex at midgestation. Fayol, L., Baud, O., Monier, A., Pellerin, L., Magistretti, P., Evrard, P., Verney, C. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Lactate transport in heart in relation to myocardial ischemia. Halestrap, A.P., Wang, X., Poole, R.C., Jackson, V.N., Price, N.T. Am. J. Cardiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Cellular expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) in the digestive tract of the mouse, rat, and humans, with special reference to slc5a8. Iwanaga, T., Takebe, K., Kato, I., Karaki, S., Kuwahara, A. Biomed. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Conformation of DNA modified by monofunctional Ru(II) arene complexes: recognition by DNA binding proteins and repair. Relationship to cytotoxicity. Novakova, O., Kasparkova, J., Bursova, V., Hofr, C., Vojtiskova, M., Chen, H., Sadler, P.J., Brabec, V. Chem. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Optimization of monocarboxylate transporter 1 blockers through analysis and modulation of atropisomer interconversion properties. Guile, S.D., Bantick, J.R., Cooper, M.E., Donald, D.K., Eyssade, C., Ingall, A.H., Lewis, R.J., Martin, B.P., Mohammed, R.T., Potter, T.J., Reynolds, R.H., St-Gallay, S.A., Wright, A.D. J. Med. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Mechanical induction of an epithelial cell chymase associated with wound edge migration. Firth, J.D., Uitto, V.J., Putnins, E.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  18. The relationship between genetic and haemodynamic factors in diabetic nephropathy (DN): Case-control study in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Shestakova, M.V., Vikulova, O.K., Gorashko, N.M., Voronko, O.E., Babunova, N.B., Nosikov, V.V., Dedov, I.I. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Vestibular dark cells contain an H+/monocarboxylate- cotransporter in their apical and basolateral membrane. Shimozono, M., Liu, J., Scofield, M.A., Wangemann, P. J. Membr. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Functional evidence for a monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) in strial marginal cells and molecular evidence for MCT1 and MCT2 in stria vascularis. Shimozono, M., Scofield, M.A., Wangemann, P. Hear. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
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