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Gene Review

Pyy  -  peptide YY

Mus musculus

Synonyms: PYY, Peptide YY, Peptide tyrosine tyrosine
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Disease relevance of Pyy

  • This latter effect of PYY was largely reversed by pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin [1].
  • Trial 1 of this study examined brain Al concentrations, plasma metabolites and intestinal metabolism of 40 control and 40 Ts mice administered 300microg PYY/kg body weight or 0.9% saline for 3d [2].
  • Peptide YY administration decreases brain aluminum in the Ts65Dn Down syndrome mouse model [2].
  • However, obesity does not appear to be associated with resistance to PYY (as it is with leptin) and exogenous infusion of PYY 3-36 results in a reduction in food intake by 30% in an obese group and 31% in a lean group [3].
  • The changes in the colonic contents of PYY, VIP and somatostatin may cause low intestinal secretion and, together with slow GIT, give rise to constipation, which is a common symptom in diabetes [4].

Psychiatry related information on Pyy

  • NPY (0.3-10 micrograms), PYY (0.1-10 micrograms) and PP (3.0-10 micrograms) produced significant increases in locomotor activity [5].
  • The recent report that these peptides have antimicrobial properties suggests that NPY and PYY may contribute to the skin's defense mechanisms against invading microorganisms [6].
  • However, this treatment fails to restore insulin- and 2-DG-induced feeding despite normalizing feeding in response to food deprivation and PYY [7].
  • Critical role for peptide YY in protein-mediated satiation and body-weight regulation [8].

High impact information on Pyy

  • Monoiodinated peptide YY binding, mainly representing Y2-Rs, was down-regulated by 85% in the CA1 strata oriens and radiatum and by 50-65% in the CA3 stratum oriens 110-140 days postinoculation [9].
  • Peptide YY(+) cells gave rise to all L-type enteroendocrine cells and to islet partial differential and PP cells [10].
  • Despite the anorectic effects of exogenous peptide YY(3-36) following intraperitoneal administration, mice lacking peptide YY showed normal growth, food intake, energy expenditure, and responsiveness to peptide YY(3-36) [10].
  • In the pancreas, approximately 40% of pancreatic alpha and rare beta cells arose from peptide YY(+) cells, suggesting that most beta cells and surprisingly the majority of alpha cells are not descendants of peptide YY(+)/glucagon-positive/insulin-positive cells that appear during early pancreagenesis [10].
  • Energy homeostasis and gastrointestinal endocrine differentiation do not require the anorectic hormone peptide YY [10].

Biological context of Pyy


Anatomical context of Pyy

  • These findings suggest that PYY receptors play a role in epithelial cell growth [1].
  • PYY receptors were exclusively expressed in proliferative cells cultured in the presence of D-glucose [1].
  • These results suggest that PYY-positive endocrine cells may represent precursors for mature islet cells [12].
  • BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The hormone PYY (peptide YY), synthesized by endocrine cells in the pancreas, ileum, colon and stomach has widespread inhibitory effects on gastrointestinal and pancreatic fluid secretion [11].
  • In fact, immunofluorescence experiments using the specific antibody raised against the AE2 isoform of Cl(-)/HCO3- exchanger specifically expressed in parietal cells confirmed that the number of parietal cells was comparable in both PYY and control stomachs [11].

Associations of Pyy with chemical compounds

  • Receptors for peptide YY (PYY) were identified in the PKSV-PCT renal proximal tubule cell line, derived from transgenic mice (SV40 large T antigen under the control of the rat L-type pyruvate kinase 5'-regulatory sequence) [1].
  • PYY in developing murine islet cells: comparisons to development of islet hormones, NPY, and BrdU incorporation [12].
  • The absence of H2 receptors-mediated signalling due to the inhibition of histamine release from ECL (enterochromaffin-like) cells by PYY may be in part responsible for the observed increase in the number of parietal cells expressing AQP4 [11].
  • Colonic tumours expressed SV40Tag, proglucagon-derived peptides and peptide YY (PYY); scattered cells contained cholecystokinin or glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit [13].
  • Peptide YY coexpression continued in a significant fraction of most enteroendocrine cell types throughout fetal and postnatal development and into adulthood, with the exception of serotonin-producing cells [14].

Regulatory relationships of Pyy


Other interactions of Pyy

  • Gastrin infusion increased gastric IAPP but not PYY expression [16].
  • These observations suggest that NPY and PYY influence different neural substrates in the brain involved in feeding and learning [5].
  • Peptide YY showed a high degree of co-localization with glucagon- and insulin-producing cells in early pancreatic development, but by adulthood, peptide YY was expressed in less than half of the alpha cells and was no longer expressed in beta cells [17].
  • Some neoplastic pancreatic cells contained glucagon, PYY or vasoactive intestinal peptide immunopositivity, but most were negative for all peptides; they contained immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase and by electron microscopy, pancreatic tumour cells had neuronal features [13].
  • Plasma leptin-, ghrelin- and PYY-like immunoreactivity (IR) were measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA) [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pyy


  1. Peptide YY receptors in the proximal tubule PKSV-PCT cell line derived from transgenic mice. Relation with cell growth. Voisin, T., Bens, M., Cluzeaud, F., Vandewalle, A., Laburthe, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Peptide YY administration decreases brain aluminum in the Ts65Dn Down syndrome mouse model. Berg, B.M., Croom, J., Fernandez, J.M., Spears, J.W., Eisen, E.J., Taylor, I.L., Daniel, L.R., Coles, B.A., Boeheim, F., Mannon, P.J. Growth, development, and aging : GDA. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Gut hormones as peripheral anti obesity targets. Small, C.J., Bloom, S.R. Current drug targets. CNS and neurological disorders. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Gastrointestinal transit in an animal model of human diabetes type 2: relationship to gut neuroendocrine peptide contents. El-Salhy, M. Ups. J. Med. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of pancreatic polypeptide family peptides on feeding and learning behavior in mice. Nakajima, M., Inui, A., Teranishi, A., Miura, M., Hirosue, Y., Okita, M., Himori, N., Baba, S., Kasuga, M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Langerhans cell expression of neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Lambert, R.W., Campton, K., Ding, W., Ozawa, H., Granstein, R.D. Neuropeptides (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. A role for dopamine in feeding responses produced by orexigenic agents. Hnasko, T.S., Szczypka, M.S., Alaynick, W.A., During, M.J., Palmiter, R.D. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Critical role for peptide YY in protein-mediated satiation and body-weight regulation. Batterham, R.L., Heffron, H., Kapoor, S., Chivers, J.E., Chandarana, K., Herzog, H., Le Roux, C.W., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Withers, D.J. Cell metabolism. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Marked decrease of neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor binding sites in the hippocampus in murine prion disease. Diez, M., Koistinaho, J., Dearmond, S.J., Groth, D., Prusiner, S.B., Hökfelt, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Energy homeostasis and gastrointestinal endocrine differentiation do not require the anorectic hormone peptide YY. Schonhoff, S., Baggio, L., Ratineau, C., Ray, S.K., Lindner, J., Magnuson, M.A., Drucker, D.J., Leiter, A.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Altered expression of aquaporin 4 and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the stomachs of peptide YY (PYY) transgenic mice. Carmosino, M., Mazzone, A., Laforenza, U., Gastaldi, G., Svelto, M., Valenti, G. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. PYY in developing murine islet cells: comparisons to development of islet hormones, NPY, and BrdU incorporation. Jackerott, M., Oster, A., Larsson, L.I. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Development of colonic and pancreatic endocrine tumours in mice expressing a glucagon-SV40 T antigen transgene. Asa, S.L., Lee, Y.C., Drucker, D.J. Virchows Arch. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Peptide YY expression is an early event in colonic endocrine cell differentiation: evidence from normal and transgenic mice. Upchurch, B.H., Fung, B.P., Rindi, G., Ronco, A., Leiter, A.B. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Peptide YY: intrapancreatic localization and effects on insulin and glucagon secretion in the mouse. Böttcher, G., Ahrén, B., Lundquist, I., Sundler, F. Pancreas (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Reduced ghrelin, islet amyloid polypeptide, and peptide YY expression in the stomach of gastrin-cholecystokinin knockout mice. Friis-Hansen, L., Wierup, N., Rehfeld, J.F., Sundler, F. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of peptide YY in all four islet cell types in the developing mouse pancreas suggests a common peptide YY-producing progenitor. Upchurch, B.H., Aponte, G.W., Leiter, A.B. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Pre-obese and obese agouti mice are sensitive to the anorectic effects of peptide YY(3-36) but resistant to ghrelin. Martin, N.M., Small, C.J., Sajedi, A., Patterson, M., Ghatei, M.A., Bloom, S.R. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Glucagon-like peptide-1 7-36 amide and peptide YY from the L-cell of the ileal mucosa are potent inhibitors of vagally induced gastric acid secretion in man. Wettergren, A., Petersen, H., Orskov, C., Christiansen, J., Sheikh, S.P., Holst, J.J. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Immunocytochemical study of intestinal endocrine cells in germ-free mice. Nogueira, A.M., Barbosa, A.J. European journal of histochemistry : EJH. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Ontogeny and the effect of aging on pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY. Sandström, O., El-Salhy, M. Peptides (2002) [Pubmed]
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