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Gene Review

Acly  -  ATP citrate lyase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: ACL, ATP-citrate (pro-S-)-lyase, ATP-citrate synthase, Citrate cleavage enzyme, Clatp
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Disease relevance of Acly


High impact information on Acly


Chemical compound and disease context of Acly


Biological context of Acly

  • The isolation and characterization of the mRNA for ATP citrate-lyase will allow further studies on the reaction mechanism and metabolic regulation of this key enzyme in lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis [13].
  • During rat development, the ATP citrate-lyase mRNA was relatively high in the liver at parturition, followed by a reduction in its level during suckling [13].
  • We have isolated a full-length cDNA copy of 4.3 kilobase pairs encoding the ATP-citrate lyase mRNA by screening rat liver cDNA library using oligonucleotide probes designed from peptide sequences obtained from the purified rat enzyme [13].
  • Six Sp1 binding sites and CAAT box exist in the region from transcription start site to -419 bp which showed the highest promoter activity in ACL promoter previously [14].
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed two forms of ACL mRNA; the one containing complete exons and the other lacking exon 14 were found in the brain, kidney, mammary gland, lung and liver [15].

Anatomical context of Acly


Associations of Acly with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Acly


Enzymatic interactions of Acly


Regulatory relationships of Acly


Other interactions of Acly


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acly


  1. Adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase mediates hypocitraturia in rats. Melnick, J.Z., Srere, P.A., Elshourbagy, N.A., Moe, O.W., Preisig, P.A., Alpern, R.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Coenzyme A is required for rat liver fatty acid synthetase activity. Linn, T.C., Stark, M.J., Srere, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. A tissue-specific increase in lipogenesis in rat brown adipose tissue in hypothyroidism. Baht, H.S., Saggerson, E.D. Biochem. J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. GTP, a nonsubstrate of ATP citrate lyase, is a phosphodonor for the enzyme histidine autophosphorylation. Tuhácková, Z., Krivánek, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Calcitonin action on ATP citrate lyase activity in the hepatic cytosol of fed rats and its calcium-calmodulin dependency. Yamaguchi, M., Momose, K. Horm. Metab. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Acetylcholine synthesis in synaptosomes: mode of transfer of mitochondrial acetyl coenzyme A. Benjamin, A.M., Quastel, J.H. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Insulin resistance in uremia. Characterization of lipid metabolism in freshly isolated and primary cultures of hepatocytes from chronic uremic rats. Caro, J.F., Lanza-Jacoby, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. The identification of ATP-citrate lyase as a protein kinase B (Akt) substrate in primary adipocytes. Berwick, D.C., Hers, I., Heesom, K.J., Moule, S.K., Tavare, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Coenzyme A requirement for the termination reaction of rat liver fatty acid synthetase. Linn, T.C., Srere, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of high sucrose diet on insulin-like effects of vanadate in diabetic rats. Pugazhenthi, S., Angel, J.F., Khandelwal, R.L. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of hydroxycitrate on food intake and body weight regain after a period of restrictive feeding in male rats. Leonhardt, M., Hrupka, B., Langhans, W. Physiol. Behav. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism on some testicular enzymes of the pyruvate/malate cycle. Aruldhas, M.M., Valivullah, H.M., Govindarajulu, P. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Rat ATP citrate-lyase. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a full-length cDNA and mRNA abundance as a function of diet, organ, and age. Elshourbagy, N.A., Near, J.C., Kmetz, P.J., Sathe, G.M., Southan, C., Strickler, J.E., Gross, M., Young, J.F., Wells, T.N., Groot, P.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of cis-acting elements in the rat ATP citrate-lyase gene promoter. Moon, Y.A., Park, S.W., Kim, K.S. Exp. Mol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning and identification of exon-intron organization of the rat ATP-citrate lyase gene. Moon, Y.A., Kim, K.S., Park, S.W., Kim, Y.S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Microsomal acetyl-CoA carboxylase: evidence for association of enzyme polymer with liver microsomes. Witters, L.A., Friedman, S.A., Bacon, G.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. ATP-citrate lyase phosphorylation in rat adipose tissue. Pucci, D.L., Ramakrishna, S., Benjamin, W.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase by nucleoside diphosphate kinase. Wagner, P.D., Vu, N.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Critical role for cataplerosis via citrate in glucose-regulated insulin release. Flamez, D., Berger, V., Kruhøffer, M., Orntoft, T., Pipeleers, D., Schuit, F.C. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Influence of glucagon or 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid on binding to mitochondria and phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase. Janski, A.M., Cornell, N.W. Biosci. Rep. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. ATP-citrate lyase. Structure of a tryptic peptide containing the phosphorylation site directed by glucagon and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Pierce, M.W., Palmer, J.L., Keutmann, H.T., Avruch, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Phosphorylation of different sites of acetyl CoA carboxylase by ATP-citrate lyase kinase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Ramakrishna, S., Benjamin, W.B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) on ATP citrate lyase in isolated hepatocytes. Reinhart, G., Roehrig, K. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. The role of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in the glucagon-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase. Alexander, M.C., Palmer, J.L., Pointer, R.H., Koumjian, L., Avruch, J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Reactivity and inhibitor potential of hydroxycitrate isomers with citrate synthase, citrate lyase, and ATP citrate lyase. Sullivan, A.C., Singh, M., Srere, P.A., Glusker, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Development of hepatic and adipose tissue lipogenic enzymes and insulinemia during suckling and weaning on to a high-fat diet in Zucker rats. Bazin, R., Lavau, M. J. Lipid Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Zonation of hepatic lipogenic enzymes identified by dual-digitonin-pulse perfusion. Evans, J.L., Quistorff, B., Witters, L.A. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Apparent inhibition of ATP citrate lyase by L-glutamate in vitro is due to the presence of glutamine synthetase. Rider, C.C. J. Neurochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
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