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Gene Review

SYN1  -  synapsin I

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Brain protein 4.1, SYN1a, SYN1b, SYNI, Synapsin I, ...
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Disease relevance of SYN1


Psychiatry related information on SYN1


High impact information on SYN1


Chemical compound and disease context of SYN1


Biological context of SYN1


Anatomical context of SYN1


Associations of SYN1 with chemical compounds

  • These results raise the possibility that the so-called proline-directed protein kinases together with CaM kinase II and cAMP-dependent protein kinase play an important role in the regulation of synapsin I function [22].
  • Exchange of Glu373 for lysine converts synapsin I from a Ca(2+)-dependent protein into a Ca(2+)-independent ATP-binding protein [23].
  • Synapsin I is phosphorylated at Ser603 by p21-activated kinases (PAKs) in vitro and in PC12 cells stimulated with bradykinin [24].
  • Although phosphorylation-dependent binding of synapsin I to cytoskeletal elements and synaptic vesicles is well characterized, little is known about synapsin I's O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modifications [25].
  • Neither haloperidol nor the dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist affected synapsin I protein expression in any of the studied brain areas [26].

Enzymatic interactions of SYN1

  • When activated, CaM kinase II phosphorylates synapsin I, which reduces its binding to vesicles and/or cytoskeletal structures, enabling more vesicles to be released during a presynaptic depolarization [27].
  • The substrate specificity of caldesmon kinase was similar to the rat brain calmodulin-dependent multifunctional protein kinase II (CaM PK-II) and phosphorylated brain synapsin and smooth muscle 20-kDa myosin light chain [28].

Regulatory relationships of SYN1

  • Blocking BDNF abrogated the exercise-induced increases in synapsin I and synatophysin, revealing that exercise regulates select properties of synaptic transmission under the direction of BDNF [29].
  • Expression of the N-terminus of S10A synapsin (amino acids 1-118) was sufficient to inhibit basal Glut4 retention [30].

Other interactions of SYN1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SYN1


  1. The 5'-flanking region of the synapsin I gene. A G+C-rich, TATA- and CAAT-less, phylogenetically conserved sequence with cell type-specific promoter function. Sauerwald, A., Hoesche, C., Oschwald, R., Kilimann, M.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunohistochemistry of synapsin I and synaptophysin in human nervous system and neuroendocrine tumors. Applications in diagnostic neuro-oncology. Smith, T.W., Nikulasson, S., De Girolami, U., De Gennaro, L.J. Clin. Neuropathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Adenoviral-mediated, high-level, cell-specific transgene expression: a SYN1-WPRE cassette mediates increased transgene expression with no loss of neuron specificity. Glover, C.P., Bienemann, A.S., Heywood, D.J., Cosgrave, A.S., Uney, J.B. Mol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Assessment of CMV, RSV and SYN1 promoters and the woodchuck post-transcriptional regulatory element in adenovirus vectors for transgene expression in cortical neuronal cultures. Boulos, S., Meloni, B.P., Arthur, P.G., Bojarski, C., Knuckey, N.W. Brain Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Genes for synapsin I, a neuronal phosphoprotein, map to conserved regions of human and murine X chromosomes. Yang-Feng, T.L., DeGennaro, L.J., Francke, U. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Regional alteration of synapsin I in the hippocampal formation of Alzheimer's disease patients. Qin, S., Hu, X.Y., Xu, H., Zhou, J.N. Acta Neuropathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Analysis of synapsin III-196 promoter mutation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Lachman, H.M., Stopkova, P., Papolos, D.F., Pedrosa, E., Margolis, B., Aghalar, M.R., Saito, T. Neuropsychobiology (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Hippocampal synapsin I, growth-associated protein-43, and microtubule-associated protein-2 immunoreactivity in learned helplessness rats and antidepressant-treated rats. Iwata, M., Shirayama, Y., Ishida, H., Kawahara, R. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Synapsin I (protein I) in different brain regions in senile dementia of Alzheimer type and in multi-infarct dementia. Perdahl, E., Adolfsson, R., Alafuzoff, I., Albert, K.A., Nestler, E.J., Greengard, P., Winblad, B. J. Neural Transm. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Neuronal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. Hanson, P.I., Schulman, H. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Actin-dependent organelle movement in squid axoplasm. Kuznetsov, S.A., Langford, G.M., Weiss, D.G. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Synapsin I bundles F-actin in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Bähler, M., Greengard, P. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Synapsin I and the cytoskeleton. Baines, A.J. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Chromaffin cell synapsin? Siegel, D.L. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. NMDA and AMPA/kainate glutamate receptors modulate dentate neurogenesis and CA3 synapsin-I in normal and ischemic hippocampus. Bernabeu, R., Sharp, F.R. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Decrease in neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) mRNA levels during differentiation of cultured neuroblastoma cells. Nishimura, E., Sasaki, K., Maruyama, K., Tsukada, T., Yamaguchi, K. Neurosci. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Physical mapping in a YAC contig of 11 markers on the human X chromosome in Xp11.23. Hagemann, T., Surosky, R., Monaco, A.P., Lehrach, H., Rosen, F.S., Kwan, S.P. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of a mutation in synapsin I, a synaptic vesicle protein, in a family with epilepsy. Garcia, C.C., Blair, H.J., Seager, M., Coulthard, A., Tennant, S., Buddles, M., Curtis, A., Goodship, J.A. J. Med. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Invertebrate tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase: structure and nested gene organization within the synapsin locus is conserved from Drosophila to human. Pohar, N., Godenschwege, T.A., Buchner, E. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Interaction of Grb2 via its Src homology 3 domains with synaptic proteins including synapsin I. McPherson, P.S., Czernik, A.J., Chilcote, T.J., Onofri, F., Benfenati, F., Greengard, P., Schlessinger, J., De Camilli, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Neuronal differentiation of cultured human NTERA-2cl.D1 cells leads to increased expression of synapsins. Leypoldt, F., Flajolet, M., Methner, A. Neurosci. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Site-specific phosphorylation of synapsin I by mitogen-activated protein kinase and Cdk5 and its effects on physiological functions. Matsubara, M., Kusubata, M., Ishiguro, K., Uchida, T., Titani, K., Taniguchi, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Synapsins I and II are ATP-binding proteins with differential Ca2+ regulation. Hosaka, M., Südhof, T.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Synapsin I is phosphorylated at Ser603 by p21-activated kinases (PAKs) in vitro and in PC12 cells stimulated with bradykinin. Sakurada, K., Kato, H., Nagumo, H., Hiraoka, H., Furuya, K., Ikuhara, T., Yamakita, Y., Fukunaga, K., Miyamoto, E., Matsumura, F., Matsuo, Y.I., Naito, Y., Sasaki, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Glycosylation sites flank phosphorylation sites on synapsin I: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues are localized within domains mediating synapsin I interactions. Cole, R.N., Hart, G.W. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Dopamine-D1 and -D2 receptors differentially regulate synapsin II expression in the rat brain. Chong, V.Z., Skoblenick, K., Morin, F., Xu, Y., Mishra, R.K. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Regulation by synapsin I and Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II of the transmitter release in squid giant synapse. Llinás, R., Gruner, J.A., Sugimori, M., McGuinness, T.L., Greengard, P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Purification and characterization of calmodulin-dependent multifunctional protein kinase from smooth muscle: isolation of caldesmon kinase. Ikebe, M., Reardon, S., Scott-Woo, G.C., Zhou, Z., Koda, Y. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Exercise differentially regulates synaptic proteins associated to the function of BDNF. Vaynman, S.S., Ying, Z., Yin, D., Gomez-Pinilla, F. Brain Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of a synapsin IIb site 1 phosphorylation mutant in 3T3-L1 adipocytes inhibits basal intracellular retention of Glut4. Muretta, J.M., Romenskaia, I., Cassiday, P.A., Mastick, C.C. J. Cell. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  31. S100A1 codistributes with synapsin I in discrete brain areas and inhibits the F-actin-bundling activity of synapsin I. Benfenati, F., Ferrari, R., Onofri, F., Arcuri, C., Giambanco, I., Donato, R. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. A highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat on the proximal short arm of the human X chromosome: linkage mapping of the synapsin I/A-raf-1 genes. Kirchgessner, C.U., Trofatter, J.A., Mahtani, M.M., Willard, H.F., DeGennaro, L.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Synapsin IIa bundles actin filaments. Chilcote, T.J., Siow, Y.L., Schaeffer, E., Greengard, P., Thiel, G. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Reduction in the number of astrocytes and their projections is associated with increased synaptic protein density in the hypothalamus of poorly controlled diabetic rats. Lechuga-Sancho, A.M., Arroba, A.I., Frago, L.M., Garc??a-C??ceres, C., de C??lix, A.D., Argente, J., Chowen, J.A. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Altered expression of a-type but not b-type synapsin isoform in the brain of patients at high risk for Alzheimer's disease assessed by DNA microarray technique. Ho, L., Guo, Y., Spielman, L., Petrescu, O., Haroutunian, V., Purohit, D., Czernik, A., Yemul, S., Aisen, P.S., Mohs, R., Pasinetti, G.M. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Dual channel confocal laser scanning microscopy of lucifer yellow-microinjected human brain cells combined with Texas red immunofluorescence. Belichenko, P.V., Dahlström, A. J. Neurosci. Methods (1994) [Pubmed]
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