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Gene Review

PRRC2A  -  proline-rich coiled-coil 2A

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BAT2, D6S51, D6S51E, G2, HLA-B-associated transcript 2, ...
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Disease relevance of BAT2


Psychiatry related information on BAT2

  • In general, adolescent delinquency plays a larger role in linking the generations for G2 fathers, whereas parenting behaviors and financial stress play a larger role for G2 mothers [5].
  • This effect was fully mediated by G2 early adolescent behavior problems [6].

High impact information on BAT2

  • The human rotamase or peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Pin1 is a conserved mitotic regulator essential for the G2/M transition of the eukaryotic cell cycle [7].
  • We have conducted a detailed structural analysis of 90 kilobases (kb) of the HLA Class III region from the Bat2 gene at the centromeric end to 23 kb beyond TNF [8].
  • S. cerevisiae 26S protease mutants arrest cell division in G2/metaphase [9].
  • In normal epidermis, the cycling fractions (cells in S/G2/M phase) of these cells were similar to the CD29+K1/K10- keratinocytes, whereas in lesional epidermis their cycling pools were increased relative to normal, but not so much as the proliferative fractions of psoriatic CD29+ K1/K10- keratinocytes [10].
  • Expression of the G1 cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells produced ALAD protein with little activity; the G2 cDNA produced the enzyme with approximately 50% normal activity [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of BAT2

  • Taken together, the results provide strong evidence that Golgi retention of the heterodimeric G1-G2 spike protein complex of Uukuniemi virus is mediated by a short region in the cytoplasmic tail of the G1 glycoprotein [12].
  • Dry/wet heart weight ratios were also greater in GGA (0.20), when compared with G2 (0.16), GX (0.17), GM (0.17), GM (0.17), and GL (0.17) (all p < 0.02), suggesting less cellular/interstitial edema [13].
  • Linkage studies of the insulin gene, the insulin receptor gene, the erythrocyte/Hep G2 glucose transporter locus, and the apolipoprotein B locus have shown no association with MODY [14].

Biological context of BAT2


Anatomical context of BAT2

  • These results suggest that the BAT2 microsatellite polymorphism is associated with the age-at-onset of IDDM and possibly with the inflammatory process of pancreatic beta-cell destruction during the development of IDDM [1].
  • The volume density of tonofilaments was increased in G1, but decreased in G2 and G3 tumor cells [19].
  • CONCLUSION: Taken together, this data indicates that radiation-induced cell death of KG1a, a cell line that has a relatively high D0 value, does not seem to be the result of the apoptotic pathway but occurs subsequent to a G2/M phase arrest [20].
  • A G2 glycoprotein construct with an extra hydrophobic sequence derived from the N-terminal NSM region was stably retained in the ER, and was unable to be transported to the Golgi complex [21].
  • In G0, G1 and G2 histological type (Sydney classification) of gastritis the number of lymphocytes obtained from the gastric mucosa biopsies was too low for the flow cytometric analysis [22].

Associations of BAT2 with chemical compounds

  • BAT2 also contains four Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motifs typical of the integrin receptor family [23].
  • Both BAT2 and BAT3 are very rich in proline and include short tracts of polyproline, polyglycine, and charged amino acids [23].
  • The results indicate that the hydrophobic domain preceding the G2 glycoprotein can function as a translocational signal peptide, and that the hydrophobic domain near the C-terminus serves as a membrane anchor [21].
  • Percent recovery in PLVP was improved (p < 0.03) in GL (81 +/- 2) and GGA (81 +/- 2) vs. G2 (71 +/- 3), without significant alterations in oxygen consumption [13].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The effect of progesterone is seen only on proliferation in low-grade (G1 and G2) tumors [24].

Other interactions of BAT2

  • Co-dominant segregation and allelic behavior was seen for the BAT1/NcoI 12 kb and 8 kb bands and the BAT2/RsaI 2.7 kb and 2.3 kb bands, respectively [2].
  • Loss of PTEN staining was significantly related to the advanced staging in the grade 1 (G1) and grade 2 (G2) endometrioid adenocarcinoma group (p=0.026) [25].
  • The greatest difficulties are found with G1 and G2 cases [3].
  • CD4 count and percentage; CD(4)/CD(8) ratio and CD(25)(+) and CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) percentages increased but HLA-DR+ percentage decreased either during or post malaria in G2 [26].
  • The putative BAT2 and BAT3 proteins are 228 and 110 kDa, respectively, and do not appear to be members of any known family of proteins [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BAT2

  • Antibodies generated by a novel DNA vaccination identify the MHC class III encoded BAT2 polypeptide [27].
  • G1 and G2 were shown to be glycosylated by their ability to bind concanavalin A to nitrocellulose transfers of the separated proteins ('Western blots') [28].
  • Reperfusion arrhythmia (in sec) was significantly (all p < 0.05) shorter in GGA (115 +/- 33) vs G1 (315 +/- 29) and G2 (273 +/- 33), and also in GL (161 +/- 26) vs G1 [13].
  • The two most common norovirus clusters (G2 clusters 1 and 4) occurred in the capital of Victoria, Melbourne, and regional Victoria, but the least common clusters (G2 clusters 2 and 3 and G1 cluster 8) only occurred in inner Melbourne. Norovirus was occasionally detected by EM but not by RT-PCR [29].
  • Ten G2 patients developed chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) [30].


  1. Genetic contribution of the BAT2 gene microsatellite polymorphism to the age-at-onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Hashimoto, M., Nakamura, N., Obayashi, H., Kimura, F., Moriwaki, A., Hasegawa, G., Shigeta, H., Kitagawa, Y., Nakano, K., Kondo, M., Ohta, M., Nishimura, M. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of two HLA-B-associated transcripts (BATs) genes in healthy Danes. Fugger, L., Morling, N., Ryder, L.P., Jakobsen, B.K., Svejgaard, A., Spies, T., Strominger, J.L. Tissue Antigens (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Improving inter-observer agreement and certainty level in diagnosing and grading papillary urothelial neoplasms: usefulness of a Bayesian belief network. Montironi, R., Mazzucchelli, R., Colanzi, P., Streccioni, M., Scarpelli, M., Thompson, D., Bartels, P.H. Eur. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. nm23 protein expression in fine-needle aspirates from breast carcinoma: inverse correlation with cytologic grading, lymph node status, and ploidy. Sauer, T., Furu, I., Beraki, K., Jebsen, P.W., Ormerod, E., Naess, O. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Linked lives: the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior. Thornberry, T.P., Freeman-Gallant, A., Lizotte, A.J., Krohn, M.D., Smith, C.A. Journal of abnormal child psychology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Linking substance use and problem behavior across three generations. Bailey, J.A., Hill, K.G., Oesterle, S., Hawkins, J.D. Journal of abnormal child psychology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Structural and functional analysis of the mitotic rotamase Pin1 suggests substrate recognition is phosphorylation dependent. Ranganathan, R., Lu, K.P., Hunter, T., Noel, J.P. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Dense Alu clustering and a potential new member of the NF kappa B family within a 90 kilobase HLA class III segment. Iris, F.J., Bougueleret, L., Prieur, S., Caterina, D., Primas, G., Perrot, V., Jurka, J., Rodriguez-Tome, P., Claverie, J.M., Dausset, J. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. S. cerevisiae 26S protease mutants arrest cell division in G2/metaphase. Ghislain, M., Udvardy, A., Mann, C. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Flow cytometric identification of proliferative subpopulations within normal human epidermis and the localization of the primary hyperproliferative population in psoriasis. Bata-Csorgo, Z., Hammerberg, C., Voorhees, J.J., Cooper, K.D. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Cloning and expression of the defective genes from a patient with delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase porphyria. Ishida, N., Fujita, H., Fukuda, Y., Noguchi, T., Doss, M., Kappas, A., Sassa, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Targeting of a short peptide derived from the cytoplasmic tail of the G1 membrane glycoprotein of Uukuniemi virus (Bunyaviridae) to the Golgi complex. Andersson, A.M., Pettersson, R.F. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of substrate manipulation on reducing ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated perfused rat hearts. Wiese, S., Askanazi, J., Manner, T., Katz, D.P., Buttrick, P. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Fajans, S.S. Diabetes/metabolism reviews. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. P1 and cosmid clones define the organization of 280 kb of the mouse H-2 complex containing the Cps-1 and Hsp70 loci. Gasser, D.L., Sternberg, N.L., Pierce, J.C., Goldner-Sauve, A., Feng, H., Haq, A.K., Spies, T., Hunt, C., Buetow, K.H., Chaplin, D.D. Immunogenetics (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of a recombinational breakpoint at the BAT5 locus in three intra-H-2 recombinant inbred mouse strains. Mathew, P.A., Kumar, V., Bennett, M., Flaherty, L. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment results and prognostic factors in 101 men treated for squamous carcinoma of the penis. Sarin, R., Norman, A.R., Steel, G.G., Horwich, A. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. HLA class III region and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Singal, D.P., Li, J., Zhu, Y. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Evaluation of human bladder tumors by ultrastructural morphometric techniques. Shimazui, T., Nemoto, R., Koiso, K., Uchiyama, Y. Virchows Arch., B, Cell Pathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Ionizing radiation effects on the KG1a primitive hematopoietic cell line. Clave, E., Carosella, E.D., Gluckman, E., Dubray, B., Socié, G. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Golgi complex localization of the Punta Toro virus G2 protein requires its association with the G1 protein. Chen, S.Y., Matsuoka, Y., Compans, R.W. Virology (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. HLA-DR expression on CD8 lymphocytes from gastric mucosa in urease-positive and urease-negative gastritis. Ihan, A., Krizman, I., Ferlan-Marolt, V., Tepez, B., Gubina, M. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. A gene pair from the human major histocompatibility complex encodes large proline-rich proteins with multiple repeated motifs and a single ubiquitin-like domain. Banerji, J., Sands, J., Strominger, J.L., Spies, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Intratumoral effects of medroxy-progesterone on proliferation, apoptosis, and sex steroid receptors in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. Dahmoun, M., Boman, K., Cajander, S., Bäckström, T. Gynecol. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. PTEN and p53 abnormalities are indicative and predictive factors for endometrial carcinoma. Inaba, F., Kawamata, H., Teramoto, T., Fukasawa, I., Inaba, N., Fujimori, T. Oncol. Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Impact of acute vivax malaria on the immune system and viral load of HIV-positive subjects. Chen, X., Xiao, B., Shi, W., Xu, H., Gao, K., Rao, J., Zhang, Z. Chin. Med. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Antibodies generated by a novel DNA vaccination identify the MHC class III encoded BAT2 polypeptide. Schneiders, A., Thiel, S., Winkler, J., Möller, P., Koch, N. Vaccine (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Structural and cell-associated proteins of Lassa virus. Clegg, J.C., Lloyd, G. J. Gen. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Molecular and epidemiological features of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks in Victoria, Australia in 2001. Marshall, J.A., Dimitriadis, A., Wright, P.J. J. Med. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Ctla-4 exon 1 (+49) and promoter (-318) gene polymorphisms in kidney transplantation. Gorgi, Y., Sfar, I., Abdallah, T.B., Abderrahim, E., Ayed, S.J., Aouadi, H., Bardi, R., Ayed, K. Transplant. Proc. (2006) [Pubmed]
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