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Gene Review

CAPG  -  capping protein (actin filament), gelsolin...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AFCP, Actin regulatory protein CAP-G, HEL-S-66, MCP, Macrophage-capping protein
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Disease relevance of CAPG

  • Human MCP expressed in Escherichia coli using a pET12a vector was functionally identical to the native protein purified from rabbit alveolar macrophages with respect to Ca2+ sensitivity and ability to block monomer exchange at the barbed end of actin filaments [1].
  • The complement system membrane cofactor protein (MCP) CD46 serves as a C3b/C4b inactivating factor for the protection of host cells from autologous complement attack and as a receptor for measles virus (MV) [2].
  • The 8-kilobase mRNA coding for the major capsid protein (MCP) of human cytomegalovirus was precisely mapped [3].
  • Plasmids were constructed which were shown to express the HHV-6 MCP as either the entire open reading frame or as portions of it, and the recombinant-produced proteins were used to raise antisera [4].
  • A monoclonal antibody against the human MCP and a monospecific rabbit antiserum against strain Colburn of simian cytomegalovirus detected the fusion protein as well as the MCP of purified virions in immunoblots [5].

Psychiatry related information on CAPG

  • CONCLUSIONS: MCP and MIP manias occurred in nearly half of this largest sample of manic patients ever reported [6].

High impact information on CAPG

  • Membrane cofactor protein (MCP or CD46): newest member of the regulators of complement activation gene cluster [7].
  • The protein-coding region of this cDNA is 73, 71, 50, and 48% identical in nucleic acid sequence to those of human macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP) 3, MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1 alpha, and RANTES, respectively [8].
  • A specific hypoglycosylated isoform of the complement regulator membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed on the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) of spermatozoa [9].
  • The recent structure determinations of several proteins from the PTS-mediated pathway, the phosphotransfer domain from the kinase CheA of the MCP-mediated chemotaxis pathway, and a homologous kinase, ArcB, enable the comparison of the histidine active sites of these systems [10].
  • Membrane cofactor protein (MCP), or CD46, is a short consensus repeat-containing protein found on the surface of keratinocytes, and purified MCP could competitively inhibit the adherence of S. pyogenes to these cells [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of CAPG


Biological context of CAPG


Anatomical context of CAPG

  • Its abundance in macrophages and the corresponding increases in mRNA levels upon promyelocyte and monocyte development into macrophages indicate that MCP may play an important role in macrophage function [1].
  • Northern blot analysis of U937 and HL60 cells differentiated to macrophage-like cells demonstrated that MCP message increases to 2.6 and greater than 7 times initial levels, respectively [1].
  • Quantitative studies with complement-coated rabbit erythrocyte intermediates constituted with each protein individually or the two proteins together demonstrated that DAF and MCP synergize the actions of each other in preventing C3b deposition on the cell surface [19].
  • Monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP) belong to a group of structurally and functionally related factors, called chemokines [20].
  • Membrane cofactor protein (MCP or gp45-70) is a recently described regulatory glycoprotein of the complement system which binds iC3 or C3b and is present on human platelets, T cells, B cells, monocytes, and mononuclear-derived cell lines [21].

Associations of CAPG with chemical compounds

  • Membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is a widely distributed C3b/C4b-binding cell surface glycoprotein which serves as an inhibitor of complement activation on host cells [7].
  • In this report we demonstrate that purified MSA carrier protein (MCP) inhibits the biological activity of MSA on CEF as measured by the stimulation of glucose transport and DNA synthesis [22].
  • The current trial explored prospectively the rate of successful stem cell mobilization in patients with advanced stage FL after initial therapy with either Mitoxantrone, Chlorambucil, Prednisone (MCP) or Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, Prednisone (CHOP) as part of a prospective randomized comparison of both regimens [23].
  • Rat membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed only in the acrosome of developing and mature spermatozoa and mediates binding to immobilized activated C3 [24].
  • Using this method, detection limits of 0.05ng/L for dicamba, MCPA, MCPP, and triclopyr, and 0.5ng/L for 2,4-D were routinely achieved [25].

Other interactions of CAPG

  • This region contains 3 splice sites that are nearly identical to the human gelsolin gene, but shares only one with villin, indicating that CAPG is more closely related to gelsolin [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CAPG


  1. Molecular cloning of human macrophage capping protein cDNA. A unique member of the gelsolin/villin family expressed primarily in macrophages. Dabiri, G.A., Young, C.L., Rosenbloom, J., Southwick, F.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Diversity of sites for measles virus binding and for inactivation of complement C3b and C4b on membrane cofactor protein CD46. Iwata, K., Seya, T., Yanagi, Y., Pesando, J.M., Johnson, P.M., Okabe, M., Ueda, S., Ariga, H., Nagasawa, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Transcriptional analysis of the eight-kilobase mRNA encoding the major capsid protein of human cytomegalovirus. Rudolph, S.A., Stamminger, T., Jahn, G. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification, cloning, and expression of the major capsid protein gene of human herpesvirus 6. Littler, E., Lawrence, G., Liu, M.Y., Barrell, B.G., Arrand, J.R. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of the major capsid protein gene of human cytomegalovirus. Chee, M., Rudolph, S.A., Plachter, B., Barrell, B., Jahn, G. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. The mood-instability hypothesis in the origin of mood-congruent versus mood-incongruent psychotic distinction in mania: validation in a French National Study of 1090 patients. Azorin, J.M., Akiskal, H., Hantouche, E. Journal of affective disorders (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Membrane cofactor protein (MCP or CD46): newest member of the regulators of complement activation gene cluster. Liszewski, M.K., Post, T.W., Atkinson, J.P. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Constitutive and allergen-induced expression of eotaxin mRNA in the guinea pig lung. Rothenberg, M.E., Luster, A.D., Lilly, C.M., Drazen, J.M., Leder, P. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Targeted and restricted complement activation on acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Riley-Vargas, R.C., Lanzendorf, S., Atkinson, J.P. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Phosphohistidines in bacterial signaling. McEvoy, M.M., Dahlquist, F.W. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Membrane cofactor protein (CD46) is a keratinocyte receptor for the M protein of the group A streptococcus. Okada, N., Liszewski, M.K., Atkinson, J.P., Caparon, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. High-dose metoclopramide and dexamethasone as an antiemetic in chemotherapy of breast cancer. Gez, E., Goodman, S., Isacson, R., Gerra, C., Sulkes, A. Oncology (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. The genetic toxicity of the peroxisome proliferator class of rodent hepatocarcinogen. Galloway, S.M., Johnson, T.E., Armstrong, M.J., Ashby, J. Mutat. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Plasma aldosterone response to metoclopramide is unmodified by hyperprolactinemia. Serri, O. Horm. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone (CHOP) improves response rates but not survival and has lower hematologic toxicity compared with combined mitoxantrone, chlorambucil, and prednisone (MCP) in follicular and mantle cell lymphomas: results of a prospective randomized trial of the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group. Nickenig, C., Dreyling, M., Hoster, E., Pfreundschuh, M., Trumper, L., Reiser, M., Wandt, H., Lengfelder, E., Unterhalt, M., Hiddemann, W. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Polar residue tagging of transmembrane peptides. Melnyk, R.A., Partridge, A.W., Yip, J., Wu, Y., Goto, N.K., Deber, C.M. Biopolymers (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. The human actin-regulatory protein cap G: gene structure and chromosome location. Mishra, V.S., Henske, E.P., Kwiatkowski, D.J., Southwick, F.S. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Preferential associations of alleles of three distinct genes argue for the existence of two prototype variants of human herpesvirus 7. Franti, M., Aubin, J.T., Gautheret-Dejean, A., Malet, I., Cahour, A., Huraux, J.M., Agut, H. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Cooperation between decay-accelerating factor and membrane cofactor protein in protecting cells from autologous complement attack. Brodbeck, W.G., Mold, C., Atkinson, J.P., Medof, M.E. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction of monocyte chemotactic proteins MCP-1 and MCP-2 in human fibroblasts and leukocytes by cytokines and cytokine inducers. Chemical synthesis of MCP-2 and development of a specific RIA. Van Damme, J., Proost, P., Put, W., Arens, S., Lenaerts, J.P., Conings, R., Opdenakker, G., Heremans, H., Billiau, A. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. A polymorphism of the complement regulatory protein MCP (membrane cofactor protein or gp45-70). Ballard, L., Seya, T., Teckman, J., Lublin, D.M., Atkinson, J.P. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of biological activity of multiplication-stimulating activity by binding to its carrier protein. Knauer, D.J., Smith, G.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Initial chemotherapy with mitoxantrone, chlorambucil, prednisone impairs the collection of stem cells in patients with indolent lymphomas--results of a randomized comparison by the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group. Nickenig, C., Dreyling, M., Hoster, E., Ludwig, W.D., Dörken, B., Freund, M., Huber, C., Ganser, A., Trümper, L., Forstpointner, R., Unterhalt, M., Hiddemann, W. Ann. Oncol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Rat membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed only in the acrosome of developing and mature spermatozoa and mediates binding to immobilized activated C3. Mizuno, M., Harris, C.L., Johnson, P.M., Morgan, B.P. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry method for analysis of selected acidic herbicides in surface water. Woudneh, M.B., Sekela, M., Tuominen, T., Gledhill, M. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Molecular cloning of membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) on B95a cell, an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed marmoset B cell line: B95a-MCP is susceptible to infection by the CAM, but not the Nagahata strain of the measles virus. Murakami, Y., Seya, T., Kurita, M., Fukui, A., Ueda, S., Nagasawa, S. Biochem. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Complete nucleotide sequence of Tn1721: gene organization and a novel gene product with features of a chemotaxis protein. Allmeier, H., Cresnar, B., Greck, M., Schmitt, R. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
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