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Gene Review

Pon1  -  paraoxonase 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: A-esterase 1, Aromatic esterase 1, PON 1, Pon, Serum aryldialkylphosphatase 1, ...
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Disease relevance of Pon1

  • The higher A-esterase activity with chlorpyrifos-oxon than paraoxon may be a major determinant in the observed lower acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos than parathion [1].
  • Hepatic paraoxonase activity alterations and free radical production in rats with experimental cirrhosis [2].
  • In spite of the technical difficulties of this study and the possible interference of the postmortem changes in the results, this article represents the first systematic approach to the characterization of human liver paraoxonase [3].
  • Effects of cholesterol supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in rat hepatic tissues: possible implications of hepatic paraoxonase in atherogenesis [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that an abnormal lipid profile and decreased PON1 activity may have a role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in which HDL-associated antioxidant defense is impaired [5].

Psychiatry related information on Pon1

  • After 20 d, blood was obtained after overnight food deprivation and PON1 activity was determined [6].
  • Paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphisms and dementia in humans [7].
  • Light, but not heavy alcohol drinking, stimulates paraoxonase by upregulating liver mRNA in rats and humans [8].

High impact information on Pon1


Chemical compound and disease context of Pon1


Biological context of Pon1

  • The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation modifies the activity and protein mass of PON1 in humans and rats [16].
  • The current data indicate that PON1 localization in microsomes and HDL3 could represent a selective cellular and lipoprotein response to oxidative stress [16].
  • An at-'risk haplotype' could be constructed including the Gln192 and the T-107 alleles, suggesting that subjects at risk have lower plasma paraoxonase levels and this enzyme is less active [7].
  • The active metabolites (oxons) of phosphorothionate insecticides can be detoxified via A-esterase hydrolysis [17].
  • Plotting chlorpyrifos-oxonase activity vs paraoxonase activity for a human population using the new assay conditions provided an excellent resolution of low activity homozygotes from heterozygotes for this allele [18].

Anatomical context of Pon1


Associations of Pon1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Pon1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pon1


  1. Purification of two rat hepatic proteins with A-esterase activity toward chlorpyrifos-oxon and paraoxon. Pond, A.L., Chambers, H.W., Coyne, C.P., Chambers, J.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Hepatic paraoxonase activity alterations and free radical production in rats with experimental cirrhosis. Ferré, N., Camps, J., Cabré, M., Paul, A., Joven, J. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Human liver paraoxonase (PON1): subcellular distribution and characterization. Gonzalvo, M.C., Gil, F., Hernandez, A.F., Rodrigo, L., Villanueva, E., Pla, A. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of cholesterol supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in rat hepatic tissues: possible implications of hepatic paraoxonase in atherogenesis. Durak, I., Ozbek, H., Devrim, E., Karagenç, N., Ergüder, I.B. Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Serum paraoxonase (a high-density lipoprotein-associated lipophilic antioxidant) activity and lipid profile in experimental acute pancreatitis. Unal, E., Uzun, H., Kusaslan, R., Dogan, M., Genc, H., Gunes, P., Titiz, I. Pancreas (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Dietary fat modulates serum paraoxonase 1 activity in rats. Kudchodkar, B.J., Lacko, A.G., Dory, L., Fungwe, T.V. J. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphisms and dementia in humans. Helbecque, N., Cottel, D., Codron, V., Berr, C., Amouyel, P. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Light, but not heavy alcohol drinking, stimulates paraoxonase by upregulating liver mRNA in rats and humans. Rao, M.N., Marmillot, P., Gong, M., Palmer, D.A., Seeff, L.B., Strader, D.B., Lakshman, M.R. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Acute ACTH regulation of adrenal corticosteroid biosynthesis. Rapid accumulation of a phosphoprotein. Pon, L.A., Hartigan, J.A., Orme-Johnson, N.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Use of proteomic methods to identify serum biomarkers associated with rat liver toxicity or hypertrophy. Amacher, D.E., Adler, R., Herath, A., Townsend, R.R. Clin. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Purification and characterization of paraoxon hydrolase from rat liver. Rodrigo, L., Gil, F., Hernandez, A.F., Marina, A., Vazquez, J., Pla, A. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. A proteomic investigation of drug-induced steatosis in rat liver. Meneses-Lorente, G., Guest, P.C., Lawrence, J., Muniappa, N., Knowles, M.R., Skynner, H.A., Salim, K., Cristea, I., Mortishire-Smith, R., Gaskell, S.J., Watt, A. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Leptin decreases plasma paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and induces oxidative stress: the possible novel mechanism for proatherogenic effect of chronic hyperleptinemia. Bełtowski, J., Wójcicka, G., Jamroz, A. Atherosclerosis (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Carboxylesterase and A-esterase activities during maturation and aging: relationship to the toxicity of chlorpyrifos and parathion in rats. Karanth, S., Pope, C. Toxicol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Oxidative stress and serum paraoxonase activity in experimental hypothyroidism: effect of vitamin E supplementation. Sarandöl, E., Taş, S., Dirican, M., Serdar, Z. Cell Biochem. Funct. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Iron-ascorbic acid-induced oxidant stress and its quenching by paraoxonase 1 in HDL and the liver: comparison between humans and rats. Trudel, K., Sinnett, D., James, R.W., Delvin, E., Amre, D., Seidman, E., Levy, E. J. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and isolation of two rat serum proteins with A-esterase activity toward paraoxon and chlorpyrifos-oxon. Pond, A.L., Coyne, C.P., Chambers, H.W., Chambers, J.E. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Spectrophotometric assays for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the active metabolites of chlorpyrifos and parathion by plasma paraoxonase/arylesterase. Furlong, C.E., Richter, R.J., Seidel, S.L., Costa, L.G., Motulsky, A.G. Anal. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Differences in the kinetic properties, effect of calcium and sensitivity to inhibitors of paraoxon hydrolase activity in rat plasma and microsomal fraction from rat liver. Gil, F., Gonzalvo, M.C., Hernandez, A.F., Villanueva, E., Pla, A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro rat hepatic and intestinal metabolism of the organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Poet, T.S., Wu, H., Kousba, A.A., Timchalk, C. Toxicol. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARalpha) agonist, fenofibrate, on lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, and plasma paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) activity. Bełtowski, J., Wójcicka, G., Mydlarczyk, M., Jamroz, A. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Immunohistochemical evidence for the expression and induction of paraoxonase in rat liver, kidney, lung and brain tissue. Implications for its physiological role. Rodrigo, L., Hernández, A.F., López-Caballero, J.J., Gil, F., Pla, A. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of caloric restriction and gender on rat serum paraoxonase 1 activity. Thomàs-Moyà, E., Gianotti, M., Lladó, I., Proenza, A.M. J. Nutr. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. In vivo interaction between chlorpyrifos and parathion in adult rats: sequence of administration can markedly influence toxic outcome. Karanth, S., Olivier, K., Liu, J., Pope, C. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Circadian variation of liver esterases. Bhattacharya, R.D., von Mayersbach, H. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of prostaglandin E1, melatonin, and oxytetracycline on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense system, paraoxonase (PON1) activities, and homocysteine levels in an animal model of spinal cord injury. Topsakal, C., Kilic, N., Ozveren, F., Akdemir, I., Kaplan, M., Tiftikci, M., Gursu, F. Spine. (2003) [Pubmed]
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