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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Hemodilution


High impact information on Hemodilution


Chemical compound and disease context of Hemodilution


Biological context of Hemodilution


Anatomical context of Hemodilution


Associations of Hemodilution with chemical compounds

  • The increase in GMBF induced by 3 mL of isovolemic hemodilution (delta 23 +/- 7 mL.min-1.100 g-1) was attenuated in a dose-related manner with L-NMMA, 6.25 mg/kg IV (delta 15 +/- 4 mL.min-1.100 g-1) or 50 mg/kg IV (delta 5 +/- 2 mL.min-1.100 g-1 g; P less than 0.05) [7].
  • Although a strict fluid restriction of 1.5 liters/day was maintained for 1 week before and throughout the study, after 24 h of nitroglycerin infusion there was a significant and similar degree of hemodilution whether nitroglycerin was infused alone (9.1 +/- 4.3%) or with N-acetylcysteine (8.7 +/- 4.1%) [25].
  • In order to determine the effects of a low hemoglobin concentration on gas exchange in such patients, the authors studied the effects of isovolemic hemodilution in the dog oleic acid model of ARDS [26].
  • In four additional rabbits, further hemodilution to a CaO2 of approximately 3.5 mL O2/dL increased baseline CBF to 126 +/- 21 mL x 100 g-1 min-1, but again there was no effect of L-NAME [2].
  • This was followed by isovolemic hemodilution with Ringer's lactate plus an autologous blood transfusion (or HBOC-201) and 1 week later 45 gm bovine hemoglobin of HBOC-201 (or autologous transfusion) [27].

Gene context of Hemodilution

  • Patients were evaluated before and after therapeutic hemodilution. vWF alterations were quantified using the ratio of LMW/total multimers (densitometric analysis of luminographs after Western blotting) [28].
  • A fall in excess of that caused by hemodilution was demonstrated for von Willebrand factor antigen plus its associated FVIII and ristocetin cofactor activities [29].
  • During CPB and hemodilution, AI was correlated not only with Fb but also with haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin [30].
  • In addition, holo-RBP (retinol bound), apo-RBP (retinol free), and total protein were assessed in both groups to enable the hemodilution occurring during pregnancy to be taken into consideration and to evaluate the extent of saturation of RBP with retinol [31].
  • The percentage total slow-wave EEG activity (fractional sum of theta and delta activity, 1.0 to 7.5 Hz) determined by fourier analysis was reduced significantly in the affected MCA territory and in the contralateral occipital region within 1 to 2 hours after isovolemic hemodilution [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hemodilution


  1. Hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 reduces infarct volume after embolic stroke in rats. Perez-Trepichio, A.D., Furlan, A.J., Little, J.R., Jones, S.C. Stroke (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Cerebral blood flow during hypoxemia and hemodilution in rabbits: different roles for nitric oxide? Todd, M.M., Farrell, S., Wu, B. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Hemodilution with low-molecular-weight hydroxyethyl starch after experimental focal cerebral ischemia in rabbits. Lyden, P.D., Alving, L.I., Zivin, J.A., Rothrock, J.F. Stroke (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Diaspirin crosslinked hemoglobin improves systemic oxygen uptake in oxygen supply-dependent septic rats. Sielenkämper, A.W., Chin-Yee, I.H., Martin, C.M., Sibbald, W.J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Washin and washout of isoflurane administered via bubble oxygenators during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Nussmeier, N.A., Lambert, M.L., Moskowitz, G.J., Cohen, N.H., Weiskopf, R.B., Fisher, D.M., Eger, E.I. Anesthesiology (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Systemic tolerance of osmotically induced oncolysis in rats. Orvoine, R.H., Letellier, G., Lapointe, Y. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of acute normovolemic anemia on gastric mucosal blood flow in rats: role of nitric oxide. Panés, J., Casadevall, M., Piqué, J.M., Bosch, J., Whittle, B.J., Terés, J. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. The effects of iron deficiency on estradiol-induced suppression of erythropoietin induction in rats: implications of pregnancy-related anemia. Horiguchi, H., Oguma, E., Kayama, F. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Avoidance of allogeneic blood transfusions by treatment with epoetin beta (recombinant human erythropoietin) in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Sowade, O., Warnke, H., Scigalla, P., Sowade, B., Franke, W., Messinger, D., Gross, J. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Redistribution of red blood cell flow in microcirculatory networks by hemodilution. Pries, A.R., Fritzsche, A., Ley, K., Gaehtgens, P. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of heparin, desmopressin, and isovolemic hemodilution with dextran on thrombus formation in synthetic vessel grafts inserted into the vena cava of the rabbit. Frost-Arner, L., Bergqvist, D. J. Vasc. Surg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: effect of singular or sustained hemodilution with alpha-alpha diaspirin crosslinked hemoglobin on cerebral hypoperfusion. Cole, D.J., Reynolds, L.W., Nary, J.C., Drummond, J.C., Patel, P.M., Jacobsen, W.K. Crit. Care Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Bovine hemoglobin increases skeletal muscle oxygenation during 95% artificial arterial stenosis. Horn, E.P., Standl, T., Wilhelm, S., Jacobs, E.E., Freitag, U., Freitag, M., Schulte am Esch, J. Surgery (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. The protective effect of hypervolemic hemodilution in experimental heatstroke. Chang, C.K., Chien, C.H., Chou, H.L., Lin, M.T. Shock (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Acute effects of isovolemic hemodilution with crystalloids in a canine model of focal cerebral ischemia. Hyodo, A., Heros, R.C., Tu, Y.K., Ogilvy, C., Graichen, R., Lagree, K., Korosue, K. Stroke (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Hemodilution reduces clinic and ambulatory blood pressure in polycythemic patients. Bertinieri, G., Parati, G., Ulian, L., Santucciu, C., Massaro, P., Cosentini, R., Torgano, G., Morganti, A., Mancia, G. Hypertension (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Epoetin alfa: new directions in orthopedic surgery. Beris, P. Semin. Hematol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Evaluation of a new blood-conserving arterial line system for patients in intensive care units. Silver, M.J., Jubran, H., Stein, S., McSweeney, T., Jubran, F. Crit. Care Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Hematocrit, volume expander, temperature, and shear rate effects on blood viscosity. Eckmann, D.M., Bowers, S., Stecker, M., Cheung, A.T. Anesth. Analg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Cerebrospinal fluid changes in experimental cardiopulmonary bypass using hemodilution with glucose water. Ing, T.S., Wu, C., Rosenberg, J.C., Ng, P.S., Su, W., Bernard, A.A., Wilson, R.F. Neurology (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of albumin and mannitol on organ blood flow, oxygen delivery, water content, and renal function during hypothermic hemodilution cardiopulmonary bypass. Utley, J.R., Stephens, D.B., Wachtel, C., Cain, R.B., Collins, J.C., Spaw, E.A., Moores, W.Y. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Serial changes in renal function in cardiac surgical patients. Weinstein, G.S., Rao, P.S., Vretakis, G., Tyras, D.H. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 provides larger and faster increases in tissue oxygen tension in comparison with prehemodilution values than HES 70/0.5 or HES 200/0.5 in volunteers undergoing acute normovolemic hemodilution. Standl, T., Burmeister, M.A., Schroeder, F., Currlin, E., Schulte am Esch, J., Freitag, M., Schulte am Esch, J. Anesth. Analg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Hemodilution impairs hypocapnia-induced vasoconstrictor responses in the brain and spinal cord in dogs. Czinn, E.A., Salem, M.R., Crystal, G.J. Anesth. Analg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Tolerance to intravenous nitroglycerin in patients with congestive heart failure: role of increased intravascular volume, neurohumoral activation and lack of prevention with N-acetylcysteine. Dupuis, J., Lalonde, G., Lemieux, R., Rouleau, J.L. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. The effects of hemodilution during pulmonary edema in dogs. Bishop, M.J., Cheney, F.W. Ann. Surg. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier preserves submaximal exercise capacity in humans. Hughes, G.S., Yancey, E.P., Albrecht, R., Locker, P.K., Francom, S.F., Orringer, E.P., Antal, E.J., Jacobs, E.E. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Hypoxia and altered platelet behavior influence von Willebrand factor multimeric composition in secondary pulmonary hypertension. Caramurú, L.H., Soares, R.d.e. .P., Maeda, N.Y., Lopes, A.A. Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. A randomized, blinded trial comparing the hemostatic effects of pentastarch versus hetastarch. Strauss, R.G., Pennell, B.J., Stump, D.C. Transfusion (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Influence of hemodilution of plasma proteins on erythrocyte aggregability: an in vivo study in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Gu, Y.J., Graaff, R., de Hoog, E., Veeger, N.J., Panday, G., Boonstra, P.W., van Oeveren, W. Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of vitamin A status at the end of term pregnancy on the saturation of retinol binding protein with retinol. Sapin, V., Alexandre, M.C., Chaïb, S., Bournazeau, J.A., Sauvant, P., Borel, P., Jacquetin, B., Grolier, P., Lémery, D., Dastugue, B., Azaïs-Braesco, V. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Quantitative EEG alterations after isovolemic-hemodilutional augmentation of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients. Wood, J.H., Polyzoidis, K.S., Epstein, C.M., Gibby, G.L., Tindall, G.T. Neurology (1984) [Pubmed]
  33. Resin hemoperfusion: a method of removing circulating thyroid hormones. Burman, K.D., Yeager, H.C., Briggs, W.A., Earll, J.M., Wartofsky, L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Cardiovascular responses to hemodilution and controlled hypotension in the dog. Plewes, J.L., Farhi, L.E. Anesthesiology (1985) [Pubmed]
  35. Biochemical modifications in the blood and the heated fluids during intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia. Berny, C., Mialon, A., Manchon, M., Le, K.E., Panteix, G., Baltassat, P., Gilly, F.N., Carry, P.Y., Sayag, A., Braillon, G. Oncology (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Acute normovolemic hemodilution improves oxygenation in ischemic flap tissue. Schramm, S., Wettstein, R., Wessendorf, R., Jakob, S.M., Banic, A., Erni, D. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
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