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Chemical Compound Review

anisomycin     [(2S,3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-[(4...

Synonyms: AmbotzLS-1010, Prestwick_720, GNF-Pf-4549, SureCN59587, NCIMech_000436, ...
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Disease relevance of Flagecidin


Psychiatry related information on Flagecidin

  • Here we show that consolidated fear memories, when reactivated during retrieval, return to a labile state in which infusion of anisomycin shortly after memory reactivation produces amnesia on later tests, regardless of whether reactivation was performed 1 or 14 days after conditioning [6].
  • Additional experiments showed that anisomycin and Rp-cAMPS interfered with long-term memory (LTM), but not short-term memory (STM), of fear and that the effect on LTM was specific to memory consolidation processes rather than to deficits in sensory or performance processes [7].
  • METHOD: Magnitude of changes in prevalence of anxiety-like behaviors on the elevated plus-maze and nonhabituated exaggerated startle reaction were compared in rats that were exposed to predator stress, with and without microinjection of anisomycin [8].
  • This study assessed the effects of administration of anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, after initial exposure, after exposure to a cue associated with triggering experience, and after reexposure to the triggering trauma in an animal model of PTSD [8].
  • Effects of anisomycin on brain protein synthesis and passive avoidance learning in newborn chicks [9].

High impact information on Flagecidin

  • Growth and protein translocation defects induced by this mutation can be suppressed specifically by sublethal doses of cycloheximide but not anisomycin, each inhibitors of different steps of translation elongation [10].
  • Treatment of cells with 100 microM anisomycin inhibits 99.6% of protein synthesis and substantially depresses (by 20--200 fold) the levels of the conventional early mRNAs from regions E1A, E1B, E2, E3 and E4 [11].
  • MEKK1(-/-) embryonic stem cells from mice had lost or altered responses of the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) to microtubule disruption and cold stress but activated JNK normally in response to heat shock, anisomycin, and ultraviolet irradiation [12].
  • A potent inhibitor of protein synthesis, anisomycin, was applied (10(-6)M) in 6-hour pulses at specific phases in the circadian rhythm of endogenous compound action potential (CAP) activity recorded from the eye of Aplysia in vitro [13].
  • During anisomycin treatment, the phosphorylation of HMGN1 precedes that of H3 and leads to a transient weakening of the binding of HMGN1 to chromatin [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Flagecidin

  • When administered after training, the stimulants caffeine or nicotine blocked amnesia for the task that had been produced by injections of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin given prior to training [15].
  • To address how these events are linked, we investigated the endogenous signaling/transcription factor network driving IEG activation by arsenite and anisomycin in the human osteosarcoma cell line HOS/TE-85 [16].
  • The supernatant of homogenized myocardial biopsies taken during the sustained ischemia from preconditioned pigs receiving either BIX-645 or SB203580 inhibited the anisomycin-stimulated ATF-2 phosphorylation in cultured Rat1 fibroblasts [17].
  • The trigger of preconditioning with mitoKATP channel opener diazoxide, PKC activator PMA and p38MAPK activator anisomycin produced similar delayed protection to that of ischemia or phenylephrine [18].
  • Results showed that ANI injected 20 min after training did not induce amnesia in choline treated mice (14.5 month old), but did induce amnesia when injected 15 min post training [19].

Biological context of Flagecidin

  • Retinal explants from neonatal rats or mice were kept in vitro for 24 h, and anisomycin (ANI) was used to induce apoptosis [20].
  • The peptide activated both cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and Erk pathways, and partially prevented cell death induced by ANI in explants from wild-type rodents, but not from PrP(c)-null mice [20].
  • Fourthly, the translational arrest-related components of superinduction are dissociable from the signalling agonist effects at sub-inhibitory concentrations of anisomycin, under which conditions a new type of c-fos/c-jun superinduction with 'spike' kinetics is observed [21].
  • Transformation of H. halobium with the vector plasmid generates cells resistant to both anisomycin and thiostrepton that can be selected for, and discriminated from spontaneous mutants, by a two-step selection procedure [22].
  • Transfection of dendrites with mRNA encoding green fluorescent protein resulted in fluorescence that exponentially increased on stimulation with a glutamate receptor agonist; a reaction attenuated by the translation inhibitors anisomycin and emetine [23].

Anatomical context of Flagecidin


Associations of Flagecidin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Flagecidin


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Flagecidin


  1. Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis and inhibits their tumorigenicity. Bhoumik, A., Jones, N., Ronai, Z. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Ribosomal frameshifting on MJD-1 transcripts with long CAG tracts. Toulouse, A., Au-Yeung, F., Gaspar, C., Roussel, J., Dion, P., Rouleau, G.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Selective inhibition of adenovirus type 2 early region II and III transcription by an anisomycin block of protein synthesis. Shaw, A.R., Ziff, E.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Insulin resistance due to phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 at serine 302. Werner, E.D., Lee, J., Hansen, L., Yuan, M., Shoelson, S.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Type II keratins are phosphorylated on a unique motif during stress and mitosis in tissues and cultured cells. Toivola, D.M., Zhou, Q., English, L.S., Omary, M.B. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval. Nader, K., Schafe, G.E., Le Doux, J.E. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Memory consolidation of auditory pavlovian fear conditioning requires protein synthesis and protein kinase A in the amygdala. Schafe, G.E., LeDoux, J.E. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, disrupts traumatic memory consolidation and attenuates posttraumatic stress response in rats. Cohen, H., Kaplan, Z., Matar, M.A., Loewenthal, U., Kozlovsky, N., Zohar, J. Biol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of anisomycin on brain protein synthesis and passive avoidance learning in newborn chicks. Bull, R., Ferrera, E., Orrego, F. J. Neurobiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. SRP samples nascent chains for the presence of signal sequences by interacting with ribosomes at a discrete step during translation elongation. Ogg, S.C., Walter, P. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Control of adenovirus early gene expression: a class of immediate early products. Lewis, J.B., Mathews, M.B. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of MEKK1 in cell survival and activation of JNK and ERK pathways defined by targeted gene disruption. Yujiri, T., Sather, S., Fanger, G.R., Johnson, G.L. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Neuronal circadian rhythm: phase shifting by a protein synthesis inhibitor. Jacklet, J.W. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Chromosomal protein HMGN1 modulates histone H3 phosphorylation. Lim, J.H., Catez, F., Birger, Y., West, K.L., Prymakowska-Bosak, M., Postnikov, Y.V., Bustin, M. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Memory: modification of anisomycin-induced amnesia by stimulants and depressants. Flood, J.F., Bennett, E.L., Orme, A.E., Rosenzweig, M.R., Jarvik, M.E. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Immediate-early gene induction by the stresses anisomycin and arsenite in human osteosarcoma cells involves MAPK cascade signaling to Elk-1, CREB and SRF. Bébien, M., Salinas, S., Becamel, C., Richard, V., Linares, L., Hipskind, R.A. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. p38 MAP kinase is a mediator of ischemic preconditioning in pigs. Schulz, R., Belosjorow, S., Gres, P., Jansen, J., Michel, M.C., Heusch, G. Cardiovasc. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Delayed preconditioning of the human myocardium: signal transduction and clinical implications. Loubani, M., Hassouna, A., Galiñanes, M. Cardiovasc. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of dietary choline on memory and brain chemistry in aged mice. Mizumori, S.J., Patterson, T.A., Sternberg, H., Rosenzweig, M.R., Bennett, E.L., Timiras, P.S. Neurobiol. Aging (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Cellular prion protein transduces neuroprotective signals. Chiarini, L.B., Freitas, A.R., Zanata, S.M., Brentani, R.R., Martins, V.R., Linden, R. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Protein synthesis inhibitors differentially superinduce c-fos and c-jun by three distinct mechanisms: lack of evidence for labile repressors. Edwards, D.R., Mahadevan, L.C. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Introducing mutations into the single-copy chromosomal 23S rRNA gene of the archaeon Halobacterium halobium by using an rRNA operon-based transformation system. Mankin, A.S., Zyrianova, I.M., Kagramanova, V.K., Garrett, R.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of sites for exponential translation in living dendrites. Job, C., Eberwine, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. CD40 signaling is impaired in L. major-infected macrophages and is rescued by a p38MAPK activator establishing a host-protective memory T cell response. Awasthi, A., Mathur, R., Khan, A., Joshi, B.N., Jain, N., Sawant, S., Boppana, R., Mitra, D., Saha, B. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Membrane-bound ribosomes of myeloma cells. III. The role of the messenger RNA and the nascent polypeptide chain in the binding of ribosomes to membranes. Mechler, B., Vassalli, P. J. Cell Biol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  26. Retrieval of memory for fear-motivated training initiates extinction requiring protein synthesis in the rat hippocampus. Vianna, M.R., Szapiro, G., McGaugh, J.L., Medina, J.H., Izquierdo, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Requirement for protein synthesis in the regulation of a circadian rhythm by serotonin. Eskin, A., Yeung, S.J., Klass, M.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of protein synthesis inhibitors on growth factor activation of c-fos, c-myc, and actin gene transcription. Greenberg, M.E., Hermanowski, A.L., Ziff, E.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Chlorogenic acid inhibits Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase and triggers p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemic cells. Bandyopadhyay, G., Biswas, T., Roy, K.C., Mandal, S., Mandal, C., Pal, B.C., Bhattacharya, S., Rakshit, S., Bhattacharya, D.K., Chaudhuri, U., Konar, A., Bandyopadhyay, S. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Stabilization of tubulin mRNA by inhibition of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos. Gong, Z.Y., Brandhorst, B.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) is required for lipopolysaccharide stimulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) translation: glucocorticoids inhibit TNF-alpha translation by blocking JNK/SAPK. Swantek, J.L., Cobb, M.H., Geppert, T.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Activation of the mouse histone deacetylase 1 gene by cooperative histone phosphorylation and acetylation. Hauser, C., Schuettengruber, B., Bartl, S., Lagger, G., Seiser, C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Transcriptional regulation of the Kluyveromyces lactis beta-galactosidase gene. Lacy, L.R., Dickson, R.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. A reinvestigation of the multisite phosphorylation of the transcription factor c-Jun. Morton, S., Davis, R.J., McLaren, A., Cohen, P. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. The nucleosomal response associated with immediate-early gene induction is mediated via alternative MAP kinase cascades: MSK1 as a potential histone H3/HMG-14 kinase. Thomson, S., Clayton, A.L., Hazzalin, C.A., Rose, S., Barratt, M.J., Mahadevan, L.C. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2. Waskiewicz, A.J., Flynn, A., Proud, C.G., Cooper, J.A. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. A frameshifting mutation in CHRNE unmasks skipping of the preceding exon. Ohno, K., Milone, M., Shen, X.M., Engel, A.G. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in Fas ligand expression. Hsu, S.C., Gavrilin, M.A., Tsai, M.H., Han, J., Lai, M.Z. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Sequential inhibition of sexual receptivity by progesterone is prevented by a protein synthesis inhibitor and is not causally related to decreased levels of hypothalamic progestin receptors in the female rat. Parsons, B., McEwen, B.S. J. Neurosci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  40. Small nucleolar RNP scleroderma autoantigens associate with phosphorylated serine/arginine splicing factors during apoptosis. Overzet, K., Gensler, T.J., Kim, S.J., Geiger, M.E., van Venrooij, W.J., Pollard, K.M., Anderson, P., Utz, P.J. Arthritis Rheum. (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. Stress-activated protein kinases (JNK and p38/HOG) are essential for vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA stability. Pagès, G., Berra, E., Milanini, J., Levy, A.P., Pouysségur, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  42. Stress-induced stimulation of early growth response gene-1 by p38/stress-activated protein kinase 2 is mediated by a cAMP-responsive promoter element in a MAPKAP kinase 2-independent manner. Rolli, M., Kotlyarov, A., Sakamoto, K.M., Gaestel, M., Neininger, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  43. Induction of interleukin-2 receptor-alpha gene expression is regulated by post-translational activation of kappa B specific DNA binding proteins. Böhnlein, E., Ballard, D.W., Bogerd, H., Peffer, N.J., Lowenthal, J.W., Greene, W.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
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