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MeSH Review

Internal Capsule

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Disease relevance of Internal Capsule


Psychiatry related information on Internal Capsule


High impact information on Internal Capsule

  • The rotation is markedly reduced by either (i) ipsilateral electrocoagulations of the caudate-putamen or internal capsule or (ii) ipsilateral coronal knife cuts immediately rostral to the substantia nigra [9].
  • Although EphA/ephrin-A signaling organizes sensory maps within areas, and thalamocortical axons in the internal capsule, both papers argue that each developmental event is dissociable from the others [10].
  • The biased growth of dorsal thalamic axons toward the internal capsule zone of ventral telencephalic explants is attenuated, but not significantly, by netrin-1-blocking antibodies, suggesting that it releases another attractant activity for TCAs in addition to netrin-1 [11].
  • Projection neurons throughout the mature mammalian neocortex extend efferent axons either through the ventrolaterally positioned internal capsule to subcortical targets or through the dorsally located midline corpus callosum to the contralateral cortex [12].
  • These findings suggest that early events in cortical axon pathfinding may be controlled by a soluble activity which attracts initial axon growth toward the internal capsule and that this activity may be due to Netrin-1 [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Internal Capsule


Anatomical context of Internal Capsule


Associations of Internal Capsule with chemical compounds

  • Reductions in internal capsule NAA on the side of the lesion were seen in cases of cortical stroke in which there was no extension of the stroke into the voxel as well as in cases of striatocapsular stroke involving the voxel region [17].
  • To determine if shorter transient collaterals are extended by callosal neurons into the internal capsule, i.e., the subcortical pathway, we injected DiI into one cortical hemisphere of aldehyde-fixed Embryonic Day (E)19 and E21 brains [19].
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients were studied > or =1 month after first ischemic stroke that caused a motor deficit by use of brain T2-weighted imaging, MR spectroscopic (MRS) measurements of the neuronal marker compound N-acetyl aspartate in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and motor impairment and disability measures [20].
  • The perireticular thalamic nucleus (PRT) consists of scattered neurons that are located in the internal capsule adjacent to the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (ir) reticular thalamic nucleus (RT) and whose number decreases during development [21].
  • To determine whether synaptically released glutamate activates KARs, we recorded excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the GP following single-pulse stimulation of the internal capsule [22].

Gene context of Internal Capsule

  • In both Emx2 and Pax6 KO brains, the misrouted thalamic afferents are accompanied by displacements of the pioneering projections from the internal capsule [23].
  • In the E13.5-15.5 brain, RA175/TSLC1/SynCAM colocalized with NCAM and L1 on the developing thalamocortical fibers from the internal capsule (IC) and partly colocalized with TAG-1 on the cortical efferent axons in the intermediate zone (IZ) [24].
  • In the internal capsule, Hsp27 expression is developmentally regulated, being significantly decreased from postnatal day 14 [25].
  • NGF receptor-containing neurons are also found within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the anterior commissure, the internal capsule, and the internal and external medullary laminae of the globus pallidus [26].
  • The perireticular nucleus is a recently described thin sheet of small cells among the fibres of the internal capsule, lying lateral to the thalamic reticular nucleus and medial to the globus pallidus (Clemence and Mitrofanis [1992]. J. Comp. Neurol. 322:167-180) [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Internal Capsule


  1. Ipsilateral hemiplegia caused by right internal capsule and thalamic hemorrhage: demonstration of predominant ipsilateral innervation of motor and sensory systems by MRI, MEP, and SEP. Hosokawa, S., Tsuji, S., Uozumi, T., Matsunaga, K., Toda, K., Ota, S. Neurology (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Patients with stroke confined to basal ganglia have diminished response to rehabilitation efforts. Miyai, I., Blau, A.D., Reding, M.J., Volpe, B.T. Neurology (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. MR contrast enhancement in brainstem and deep cerebral infarction. Elster, A.D. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional radiosurgery. Kondziolka, D. Neurosurgery (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Coronal MR imaging for visualization of wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract. Orita, T., Tsurutani, T., Izumihara, A., Matsunaga, T. Journal of computer assisted tomography. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Cerebral activating properties of indeloxazine hydrochloride. Yamamoto, M., Shimizu, M. Neuropharmacology (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Memory deficits following internal capsule lesions in rats and their improvement by L-6-ketopiperidine-2-carbonyl-L-leucyl-L-proline amide (RGH-2202), a thyrotropin-releasing hormone analogue. Oka, M., Ito, T., Furukawa, K., Karasawa, T., Kadokawa, T. Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de thérapie. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Post-anoxic delayed encephalopathy with leukoencephalopathy and non-hemorrhagic cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Salama, J., Gherardi, R., Amiel, H., Poirier, J., Delaporte, P., Gray, F. Clin. Neuropathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Striatal efferent fibers play a role in maintaining rotational behavior in the rat. Marshall, J.F., Ungerstedt, U. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Local axon guidance in cerebral cortex and thalamus: are we there yet? Grove, E.A. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Netrin-1 promotes thalamic axon growth and is required for proper development of the thalamocortical projection. Braisted, J.E., Catalano, S.M., Stimac, R., Kennedy, T.E., Tessier-Lavigne, M., Shatz, C.J., O'Leary, D.D. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Directed growth of early cortical axons is influenced by a chemoattractant released from an intermediate target. Richards, L.J., Koester, S.E., Tuttle, R., O'Leary, D.D. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Definition of the anterior choroidal artery territory in rats using intraluminal occluding technique. He, Z., Yang, S.H., Naritomi, H., Yamawaki, T., Liu, Q., King, M.A., Day, A.L., Simpkins, J.W. J. Neurol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Longitudinal topography and interdigitation of corticostriatal projections in the rhesus monkey. Selemon, L.D., Goldman-Rakic, P.S. J. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Reconstruction of the nigrostriatal pathway by simultaneous intrastriatal and intranigral dopaminergic transplants. Mendez, I., Sadi, D., Hong, M. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Gender and age effects in structural brain asymmetry as measured by MRI texture analysis. Kovalev, V.A., Kruggel, F., von Cramon, D.Y. Neuroimage (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Axonal injury in the internal capsule correlates with motor impairment after stroke. Pendlebury, S.T., Blamire, A.M., Lee, M.A., Styles, P., Matthews, P.M. Stroke (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Topographical organization of the sources of discrete cortical projections within the striatum as determined by a retrograde fluorescence tracing technique in the cat. Oleshko, N.N., Maisky, V.A. Neuroscience (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Connectional distinction between callosal and subcortically projecting cortical neurons is determined prior to axon extension. Koester, S.E., O'Leary, D.D. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Relating MRI changes to motor deficit after ischemic stroke by segmentation of functional motor pathways. Pineiro, R., Pendlebury, S.T., Smith, S., Flitney, D., Blamire, A.M., Styles, P., Matthews, P.M. Stroke (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of the rat perireticular thalamic nucleus during postnatal development. Amadeo, A., De Biasi, S., Frassoni, C., Ortino, B., Spreafico, R. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Localization and function of pre- and postsynaptic kainate receptors in the rat globus pallidus. Jin, X.T., Paré, J.F., Raju, D.V., Smith, Y. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Choreography of early thalamocortical development. Molnár, Z., Higashi, S., López-Bendito, G. Cereb. Cortex (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Distribution of RA175/TSLC1/SynCAM, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, in the developing nervous system. Fujita, E., Urase, K., Soyama, A., Kouroku, Y., Momoi, T. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of 27 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27) in immature rat brain after a cortical aspiration lesion. Sanz, O., Acarin, L., González, B., Castellano, B. Glia (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactive profiles in the normal, aged human basal forebrain: colocalization with cholinergic neurons. Mufson, E.J., Bothwell, M., Hersh, L.B., Kordower, J.H. J. Comp. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Cells of the perireticular nucleus project to the developing neocortex of the rat. Adams, N.C., Baker, G.E. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Cytokine induction in fetal rat brains and brain injury in neonatal rats after maternal lipopolysaccharide administration. Cai, Z., Pan, Z.L., Pang, Y., Evans, O.B., Rhodes, P.G. Pediatr. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Impulse-dependent and tetrodotoxin-sensitive release of GABA in the rat's substantia nigra measured by microdialysis. Biggs, C.S., Fowler, L.J., Whitton, P.S., Starr, M.S. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Transient hypodensity on CT scan during hypoglycemia. Koppel, B.S., Daras, M. Eur. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Cortical cytoarchitectural and immunohistochemical studies on Zellweger syndrome. Takashima, S., Chan, F., Becker, L.E., Houdou, S., Suzuki, Y. Brain Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is required for fasciculation and routing of thalamocortical fibres and corticothalamic fibres. Ohyama, K., Tan-Takeuchi, K., Kutsche, M., Schachner, M., Uyemura, K., Kawamura, K. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
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