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Comp  -  cartilage oligomeric matrix protein

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: COMP, Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein
 
 
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Disease relevance of Comp

  • When considered together with results regarding the birthdates of neurochemically defined classes of V ganglion cells (White et al. [1994] J. Comp. Neurol. 350:397-411), these results suggest that TrV is laid down in a chronotopic fashion with the first axons forming its deeper portion and later arriving axons being added more superficially [1].
  • Rubrospinal tract cells undergo massive retrograde degeneration following spinal cord damage in newborn rats (Prendergast and Stelzner, J. Comp. Neurol. 166:163-172, '76b) [2].
  • Surprisingly, however, a recent study in anesthetized rats paradoxically found an enhancement of cardiac vagal activity during inspiration, suggesting that rats have an inverted respiratory sinus arrhythmia (Rentero N, Cividjian A, Trevaks D, Pequignot JM, Quintin L, and McAllen RM. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 283: R1327-R1334, 2002) [3].
  • Previously, rats fed a high-fat liquid diet (HF) ad libitum consumed more kilocalories and had greater weight gain than rats fed a liquid high-carbohydrate diet (HC) of equivalent energy density (Warwick, Z. S., and H. P. Weingarten. Am. J. Physiol. Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 269: R30-R37, 1995) [4].
  • We have shown that vasopressinergic projections to dorsal brain stem are activated during exercise and facilitate exercise tachycardia in both trained (T) and sedentary (S) rats (Dufloth DL, Morris M, and Michelini LC. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 273: R1271-R1282, 1997) [5].
 

Psychiatry related information on Comp

 

High impact information on Comp

  • Compared with binding of vitamin D and retinoic acid by their classical receptors, COMP exerts a distinct mechanism of interaction mainly defined by the pattern of hydrophobic core residues [8].
  • Binding of benzene and all-trans retinol into the hydrophobic axial pore of the COMP coiled-coil domain was proven by the X-ray crystal structures of the corresponding complexes at 0.25 and 0.27 nm resolution, respectively [9].
  • The binding site is between the two internal rings formed by Leu37 and Thr40 pointing into the pore of the COMP coiled-coil domain [9].
  • As deduced previously (LeVay, S., D. H. Hubel, and T. N. Wiesel (1975) J. Comp. Neurol. 159: 559-576; Hubel, D. H., and D. C., Freeman (1977) Brain Res. 122: 336-343), there were portions of the map in which the stripes followed curves approximating isoeccentricity lines, but this relationship was not very exact or consistent [10].
  • Comparison of the amino acid sequences in the type 2 and type 3 repeat domains of COMP and the thrombospondins shows that COMP is the product of a unique gene and not the result of an alternatively spliced thrombospondin gene [11].
 

Chemical compound and disease context of Comp

  • Tail thrombosis (infarction) induced by injection of kappa-carrageenin (0.88 or 1.76 mg/kg i.v.) is increased by i.v. or i.p. serotonin (1-2 mg/kg) but is decreased by cyproheptadine and ketanserin (minimal effective dose less than 1 mg/kg) as well as by preceding serotonin depletion by comp [12].
 

Biological context of Comp

  • Protonation of a Ca channel binding site could explain the inhibitory effect of low pH on Ca-dependent neurotransmitter release (cf. Del Castillo et al., J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 59:35, 1962) [13].
  • The results reported here supplement our previous observations, which indicated that the subcommissural ventral pallidum of the rat comprises two immunohistochemically defined subterritories (Zahm and Heimer, '88: J. Comp. Neurol., 272:516-535) which give rise to dichotomous downstream projection systems (Zahm, '89: Neuroscience, 30:33-50) [14].
  • A previous report has shown that small diameter serotoninergic (5-HT) axons innervating the forebrain are selectively eliminated by treatment with an amphetamine derivative, (+/-)p-chloroamphetamine (PCA; Mamounas et al., [1991] J. Comp. Neurol. 314:558-586) [15].
  • Unlike in carnivore retina (Schall and Leventhal: J. Comp. Neurol. 257:149-159, '87), the dendritic fields in the rat are not displaced down the ganglion cell density gradient [16].
  • Morphogenesis of mitral cell dendrites proceeded as previously described (Malun and Brunjes [1996] J. Comp. Neurol. 368:1-16); that is, undifferentiated dendrites with radial orientation were transformed into a single primary dendrite having a glomerular tuft and secondary dendrites extending tangentially into the external plexiform layer [17].
 

Anatomical context of Comp

  • During the prenatal development of the hippocampus, microglial cell precursors progressively occur in all subfields in accordance with known ontogenetic gradients of the region (Dalmau et al., J. Comp. Neurol. 1997a;377:70-84) [18].
  • We also observed a similar changing pattern for cells with birthdates of many of the mature GAD-containing neurons in the dentate gyrus (Dupuy and Houser, J Comp Neurol 1997;389:402-418) [19].
  • These results confirm previous electron microscopic autoradiographic studies showing that the vast majority of proliferating cells in postnatal rat optic nerve have the morphologic characteristics of differentiating ASs or OLs (Skoff, J. Comp. Neurol., 169:291-312, 1976) [20].
  • This is the site where the ciliary plasma membrane evaginates to form new outer segment disks (Steinberg et al J Comp Neurol 190: 501-518, 1980) [21].
  • We have shown by immunohistochemical methods that the gap junction protein connexin43 is heterogeneously distributed in rat brain (Yamamoto et al: J Comp Neurol 302:853, 1990) [22].
 

Associations of Comp with chemical compounds

  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd), a marker of NO containing neurons, was shown to intensely colocalize with GABA in double-labeling studies performed in the hippocampal formation (exception made for the pyramidal cell layer) (Valtschanoff et al., J Comp Neurol 1993:331:111-121) [23].
  • In the rat, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity in the duodenum, but not jejunum, increases on day 22-24 after birth and exhibits higher activity hydrolysing phenyl phosphate (PhP) than beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP) [Moog and Yeh (1973) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 44B, 657-666] [24].
  • A comparison of MR with dorsal raphe (DR) projections (Vertes RP. 1991. J Comp Neurol 313:643-668) shows that these two major serotonin-containing cell groups of the midbrain distribute to essentially nonoverlapping regions of the forebrain; that is, the MR and DR project to complementary sites in the forebrain [25].
  • Terminals containing lucent axoplasm and spherical synaptic vesicles have been identified as norepinephrine neuron terminals (Card et al.: J. Comp. Neurol. 250:469-484, '86) [26].
  • Taken together with our previous findings on the distribution of vasopressin-expressing neurons in the PVH (Hallbeck and Blomqvist [1999] J. Comp. Neurol. 411:201-211), the results demonstrated that the different PVH subdivisions display distinct peptide expression patterns among the spinal cord-projecting neurons [27].
 

Other interactions of Comp

  • The distribution and morphological characteristics of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons differed from those of another calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin, in the human amygdala (Sorvari et al. [1995] J. Comp. Neurol. 360:185-212) [28].
  • Previously, we have observed transient high levels of SNARE complex protein SNAP-25 in developing cholinergic amacrine cells (West Greenlee et al. [1998] J Comp Neurol 394:374-385) [29].
  • Neurons in the piriform cortex and the pontine nucleus locus coeruleus express elevated levels of the immediate early gene protein product, Fos, within 30-45 minutes of a seizurogenic dose of the anticholinesterase, soman (Zimmer et al., [1997] J. Comp. Neurol. 378:468-481) [30].
  • In the adult rat brainstem, neuronal subpopulations of several motor and sensory nuclei display basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) immunoreactivity (IR; Grothe et al. J. Comp. Neurol. 305:328-336) [31].
  • In wholemount explant cultures of embryonic rat trigeminal ganglion and brainstem or in dissociated cell cultures of the trigeminal ganglion, exogenous supply of NGF leads to axonal elongation, whereas neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) treatment leads to short branching and arborization (Ulupinar et al. [2000a] J. Comp. Neurol. 425:622-630) [32].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Comp

  • Their cytoarchitecture corresponds closely to cells described as oligodendroblasts with electron microscopy and whose processes often appear to be in the initial phase of myelination (Skoff et al: J. Comp. Neurol. 169:291-312, 1976a) [33].
  • Neuronal loss caused by crush seems similar to that seen in rats exposed to permanent axotomy (Vestergaard et al. [1997] J Comp Neurol 388:307-312) at the same location, indicating that survival of perikarya is not dependent on possibility for fiber growth [34].
  • In this study, immunohistochemistry for muscarinic subtype 2 (m2) receptors using a monoclonal subtype-specific antibody (Levey et al. [1995] J. Comp. Neurol. 351:339-356) revealed an m2-like system in the rat CN [35].
  • The density of substance P (SP) and serotonin (5HT) immunoreactivity in laminae I and II of rat spinal cord changes following dorsal rhizotomy in a manner consistent with sprouting by intrinsic SP and descending 5HT systems (Wang et al. J. Comp. Neurol. 304: 555, 1991) [36].
  • Following a previous immunocytochemical study of GLUT4 in the rat brain and spinal cord (J. Comp. Neurol. 399 (1998) 492), we now report the distribution and cellular expression of GLUT4 mRNA in the CNS using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and non-radioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) [37].

References

  1. Organization of primary afferent axons in the trigeminal sensory root and tract of the rat. Crissman, R.S., Sodeman, T., Denton, A.M., Warden, R.J., Siciliano, D.A., Rhoades, R.W. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Neural tissue transplants rescue axotomized rubrospinal cells from retrograde death. Bregman, B.S., Reier, P.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in freely moving and anesthetized rats. Bouairi, E., Neff, R., Evans, C., Gold, A., Andresen, M.C., Mendelowitz, D. J. Appl. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Behavioral components of high-fat diet hyperphagia: meal size and postprandial satiety. Warwick, Z.S., McGuire, C.M., Bowen, K.J., Synowski, S.J. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Central oxytocin modulates exercise-induced tachycardia. Braga, D.C., Mori, E., Higa, K.T., Morris, M., Michelini, L.C. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Induction of c-fos-like and fosB-like immunoreactivity reveals forebrain neuronal populations involved differentially in pup-mediated maternal behavior in juvenile and adult rats. Kalinichev, M., Rosenblatt, J.S., Nakabeppu, Y., Morrell, J.I. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Learned helplessness in the rat: improvements in validity and reliability. Vollmayr, B., Henn, F.A. Brain Res. Brain Res. Protoc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Storage function of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein: the crystal structure of the coiled-coil domain in complex with vitamin D(3). Ozbek, S., Engel, J., Stetefeld, J. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. All-trans retinol, vitamin D and other hydrophobic compounds bind in the axial pore of the five-stranded coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. Guo, Y., Bozic, D., Malashkevich, V.N., Kammerer, R.A., Schulthess, T., Engel, J. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. The complete pattern of ocular dominance stripes in the striate cortex and visual field of the macaque monkey. LeVay, S., Connolly, M., Houde, J., Van Essen, D.C. J. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. COMP (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein) is structurally related to the thrombospondins. Oldberg, A., Antonsson, P., Lindblom, K., Heinegård, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Influence of serotonin, serotonin antagonists, some vasoactive substances and temperature on carrageenin-induced tail thrombosis in rats and mice. Bekemeier, H., Hirschelmann, R. Agents Actions (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulation of nerve terminal calcium channel selectivity by a weak acid site. Nachshen, D.A., Blaustein, M.P. Biophys. J. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Two transpallidal pathways originating in the rat nucleus accumbens. Zahm, D.S., Heimer, L. J. Comp. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Light and electron microscopic studies of the effects of p-chloroamphetamine on the monoaminergic innervation of the rat spinal cord. Ridet, J.L., Geffard, M., Privat, A. J. Comp. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Ganglion cell dendritic structure and retinal topography in the rat. Schall, J.D., Perry, V.H., Leventhal, A.G. J. Comp. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Differentiation of mitral cell dendrites in the developing main olfactory bulbs of normal and naris-occluded rats. Matsutani, S., Yamamoto, N. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Development of microglia in the postnatal rat hippocampus. Dalmau, I., Finsen, B., Zimmer, J., González, B., Castellano, B. Hippocampus. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Evidence for changing positions of GABA neurons in the developing rat dentate gyrus. Dupuy-Davies, S., Houser, C.R. Hippocampus. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Division of astroblasts and oligodendroblasts in postnatal rodent brain: evidence for separate astrocyte and oligodendrocyte lineages. Skoff, R.P., Knapp, P.E. Glia (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Immunoferritin localization of actin in retinal photoreceptors. Chaitin, M.H., Bok, D. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Quantitative immunohistochemical and biochemical correlates of connexin43 localization in rat brain. Nagy, J.I., Yamamoto, T., Sawchuk, M.A., Nance, D.M., Hertzberg, E.L. Glia (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Loss of NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in the hippocampal formation of chronic pilocarpine-epileptic rats. Hamani, C., Tenório, F., Mendez-Otero, R., Mello, L.E. Hippocampus. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Development and hormonal modulation of postnatal expression of intestinal alkaline phosphatase mRNA species and their encoded isoenzymes. Yeh, K., Yeh, M., Holt, P.R., Alpers, D.H. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Projections of the median raphe nucleus in the rat. Vertes, R.P., Fortin, W.J., Crane, A.M. J. Comp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Synaptic reorganization in the motor trigeminal nucleus of the rat following neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine treatment. Hemmendinger, L.M., Moore, R.Y. J. Comp. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Neuropeptide expression in rat paraventricular hypothalamic neurons that project to the spinal cord. Hallbeck, M., Larhammar, D., Blomqvist, A. J. Comp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Calretinin-immunoreactive cells and fibers in the human amygdaloid complex. Sorvari, H., Soininen, H., Pitkänen, A. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Differential localization of SNARE complex proteins SNAP-25, syntaxin, and VAMP during development of the mammalian retina. Greenlee, M.H., Roosevelt, C.B., Sakaguchi, D.S. J. Comp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Soman-induced seizures rapidly activate astrocytes and microglia in discrete brain regions. Zimmer, L.A., Ennis, M., Shipley, M.T. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression of FGF-2 and FGF receptor type 1 in the adult rat brainstem: effect of colchicine. Grothe, C., Janet, T. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Regulation of neurotrophin-induced axonal responses via Rho GTPases. Ozdinler, P.H., Erzurumlu, R.S. J. Comp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Postmitotic oligodendrocytes generated during postnatal cerebral development are derived from proliferation of immature oligodendrocytes. Skoff, R.P., Ghandour, M.S., Knapp, P.E. Glia (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of nerve crush on perikaryal number and volume of neurons in adult rat dorsal root ganglion. Degn, J., Tandrup, T., Jakobsen, J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Immunolocalization of muscarinic acetylcholine subtype 2 receptors in rat cochlear nucleus. Yao, W., Godfrey, D.A., Levey, A.I. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Proliferation of SP- and 5HT-containing terminals in lamina II of rat spinal cord following dorsal rhizotomy: quantitative EM-immunocytochemical studies. Zhang, B., Goldberger, M.E., Murray, M. Exp. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Expression of insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 mRNA in the rat brain and spinal cord: an in situ hybridization study. El Messari, S., Aït-Ikhlef, A., Ambroise, D.H., Penicaud, L., Arluison, M. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (2002) [Pubmed]
 
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