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Gene Review

Hmgcr  -  3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, HMG-CoA reductase, HMG-CoAR, Red
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Disease relevance of Hmgcr


Psychiatry related information on Hmgcr

  • Cardiovascular risk reduction by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) may involve actions beyond lipid lowering, including reduced inflammation [6].
  • HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and why it would be ill-advise to use one that crosses the blood-brain barrier [7].

High impact information on Hmgcr


Chemical compound and disease context of Hmgcr


Biological context of Hmgcr


Anatomical context of Hmgcr


Associations of Hmgcr with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Hmgcr


Enzymatic interactions of Hmgcr


Regulatory relationships of Hmgcr


Other interactions of Hmgcr


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hmgcr


  1. Acute P-407 administration to mice causes hypercholesterolemia by inducing cholesterolgenesis and down-regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor expression. Leon, C., Wasan, K.M., Sachs-Barrable, K., Johnston, T.P. Pharm. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Sepsis syndrome stimulates proximal tubule cholesterol synthesis and suppresses the SR-B1 cholesterol transporter. Zager, R.A., Johnson, A.C., Hanson, S.Y. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Lipid-lowering drugs in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease: Fenofibrate has a neuroprotective effect, whereas bezafibrate and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors do not. Kreisler, A., Gelé, P., Wiart, J.F., Lhermitte, M., Destée, A., Bordet, R. Brain Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. 7-Dehydrocholesterol-dependent proteolysis of HMG-CoA reductase suppresses sterol biosynthesis in a mouse model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz/RSH syndrome. Fitzky, B.U., Moebius, F.F., Asaoka, H., Waage-Baudet, H., Xu, L., Xu, G., Maeda, N., Kluckman, K., Hiller, S., Yu, H., Batta, A.K., Shefer, S., Chen, T., Salen, G., Sulik, K., Simoni, R.D., Ness, G.C., Glossmann, H., Patel, S.B., Tint, G.S. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhibition of beta-oxidative respiration is a therapeutic window associated with the cancer chemo-preventive activity of PPARgamma agonists. Andela, V.B., Altuwaijri, S., Wood, J., Rosier, R.N. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein augments and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors limit CD40 and CD40L expression in human vascular cells. Schönbeck, U., Gerdes, N., Varo, N., Reynolds, R.S., Horton, D.B., Bavendiek, U., Robbie, L., Ganz, P., Kinlay, S., Libby, P. Circulation (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and why it would be ill-advise to use one that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Sparks, D.L., Connor, D.J., Browne, P.J., Lopez, J.E., Sabbagh, M.N. The journal of nutrition, health & aging. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, promotes a Th2 bias and reverses paralysis in central nervous system autoimmune disease. Youssef, S., Stüve, O., Patarroyo, J.C., Ruiz, P.J., Radosevich, J.L., Hur, E.M., Bravo, M., Mitchell, D.J., Sobel, R.A., Steinman, L., Zamvil, S.S. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Statins inhibit HIV-1 infection by down-regulating Rho activity. del Real, G., Jiménez-Baranda, S., Mira, E., Lacalle, R.A., Lucas, P., Gómez-Moutón, C., Alegret, M., Peña, J.M., Rodríguez-Zapata, M., Alvarez-Mon, M., Martínez-A, C., Mañes, S. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Severe facial clefting in Insig-deficient mouse embryos caused by sterol accumulation and reversed by lovastatin. Engelking, L.J., Evers, B.M., Richardson, J.A., Goldstein, J.L., Brown, M.S., Liang, G. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunomodulatory synergy by combination of atorvastatin and glatiramer acetate in treatment of CNS autoimmunity. Stüve, O., Youssef, S., Weber, M.S., Nessler, S., von Büdingen, H.C., Hemmer, B., Prod'homme, T., Sobel, R.A., Steinman, L., Zamvil, S.S. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Neuroprotection mediated by changes in the endothelial actin cytoskeleton. Laufs, U., Endres, M., Stagliano, N., Amin-Hanjani, S., Chui, D.S., Yang, S.X., Simoncini, T., Yamada, M., Rabkin, E., Allen, P.G., Huang, P.L., Böhm, M., Schoen, F.J., Moskowitz, M.A., Liao, J.K. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase inhibitors reduce human pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Kusama, T., Mukai, M., Iwasaki, T., Tatsuta, M., Matsumoto, Y., Akedo, H., Inoue, M., Nakamura, H. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Insulin deficiency alters cellular cholesterol metabolism in murine macrophages. Kraemer, F.B. Diabetes (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor pravastatin reduces disease activity and inflammation in dextran-sulfate induced colitis. Sasaki, M., Bharwani, S., Jordan, P., Joh, T., Manas, K., Warren, A., Harada, H., Carter, P., Elrod, J.W., Wolcott, M., Grisham, M.B., Alexander, J.S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Post-ischemic delivery of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin protects against focal cerebral ischemia in mice via inhibition of extracellular-regulated kinase-1/-2. Kilic, U., Bassetti, C.L., Kilic, E., Xing, H., Wang, Z., Hermann, D.M. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Genes for HMG-CoA reductase and serotonin 1a receptor are on mouse chromosome 13. Sundaresan, S., Yang-Feng, T.L., Francke, U. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Early embryonic lethality caused by targeted disruption of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene. Ohashi, K., Osuga, J., Tozawa, R., Kitamine, T., Yagyu, H., Sekiya, M., Tomita, S., Okazaki, H., Tamura, Y., Yahagi, N., Iizuka, Y., Harada, K., Gotoda, T., Shimano, H., Yamada, N., Ishibashi, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Genetic and dietary interactions in the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase gene expression. Hwa, J.J., Zollman, S., Warden, C.H., Taylor, B.A., Edwards, P.A., Fogelman, A.M., Lusis, A.J. J. Lipid Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Overaccumulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase in a compactin(ML-236B)-resistant mouse cell line with defects in the regulation of its activity. Hasumi, K., Yamada, A., Shimizu, Y., Endo, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. PPARgamma2 regulates lipogenesis and lipid accumulation in steatotic hepatocytes. Schadinger, S.E., Bucher, N.L., Schreiber, B.M., Farmer, S.R. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Purification of brain peroxisomes and localization of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Kovacs, W.J., Faust, P.L., Keller, G.A., Krisans, S.K. Eur. J. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors reduce acetyl LDL endocytosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Bernini, F., Scurati, N., Bonfadini, G., Fumagalli, R. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Disturbances in the normal regulation of SREBP-sensitive genes in PPAR alpha-deficient mice. Patel, D.D., Knight, B.L., Wiggins, D., Humphreys, S.M., Gibbons, G.F. J. Lipid Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Modulation of lipoprotein metabolism by inhibition of sphingomyelin synthesis in ApoE knockout mice. Park, T.S., Panek, R.L., Rekhter, M.D., Mueller, S.B., Rosebury, W.S., Robertson, A., Hanselman, J.C., Kindt, E., Homan, R., Karathanasis, S.K. Atherosclerosis (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. 6-Nitrocholesterol inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and tumor cell growth. Parish, E.J., Dixon, K.L., Chitrakorn, S., Taylor, F.R., Luu, B., Ourisson, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Possible role of mevalonate in the hypercholesterolemia seen in experimental chronic renal failure. Subang, M.C., Stewart-Phillips, J.L., Pappu, A.S., Subang, R., Gagnon, R.F. Nephron (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Adeno-associated virus vector-mediated interleukin-10 gene transfer inhibits atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Yoshioka, T., Okada, T., Maeda, Y., Ikeda, U., Shimpo, M., Nomoto, T., Takeuchi, K., Nonaka-Sarukawa, M., Ito, T., Takahashi, M., Matsushita, T., Mizukami, H., Hanazono, Y., Kume, A., Ookawara, S., Kawano, M., Ishibashi, S., Shimada, K., Ozawa, K. Gene Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Inhibition of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase reduces Th1 development and promotes Th2 development. Hakamada-Taguchi, R., Uehara, Y., Kuribayashi, K., Numabe, A., Saito, K., Negoro, H., Fujita, T., Toyo-oka, T., Kato, T. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Mevastatin can cause G1 arrest and induce apoptosis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells through a p27Kip1-independent pathway. Fouty, B.W., Rodman, D.M. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Correlation between oxysterol binding to a cytosolic binding protein and potency in the repression of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Taylor, F.R., Saucier, S.E., Shown, E.P., Parish, E.J., Kandutsch, A.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Inhibition of lysosomal protein degradation inhibits the basal degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Tanaka, R.D., Li, A.C., Fogelman, A.M., Edwards, P.A. J. Lipid Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Biphasic regulation of HMG-CoA reductase expression and activity during wound healing and its functional role in the control of keratinocyte angiogenic and proliferative responses. Schiefelbein, D., Goren, I., Fisslthaler, B., Schmidt, H., Geisslinger, G., Pfeilschifter, J., Frank, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  34. Impaired regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 in cholesterol gallstone-susceptible mice. Xu, G., Müller, O., Stange, E.F., Fuchs, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Cholesterol distribution, not total levels, correlate with altered amyloid precursor protein processing in statin-treated mice. Burns, M.P., Igbavboa, U., Wang, L., Wood, W.G., Duff, K. Neuromolecular Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis, low-density lipoprotein receptor function, and plasma and fecal sterol levels in mice: effects of apolipoprotein E deficiency and probucol or phytosterol treatment. Moghadasian, M.H., Nguyen, L.B., Shefer, S., Salen, G., Batta, A.K., Frohlich, J.J. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Growth hormone increases low-density lipoprotein receptor and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in mesangial cells. Machado, M.O., Hirata, R.D., Hirata, M.H., Hirszel, P., Sellitti, D.F., Doi, S.Q. Nephron Exp. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Cholesterol-mediated changes of neutral cholesterol esterase activity in macrophages. Mechanism for mobilization of cholesteryl esters in lipid droplets by HDL. Miura, S., Chiba, T., Mochizuki, N., Nagura, H., Nemoto, K., Tomita, I., Ikeda, M., Tomita, T. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. Effect of cutaneous permeability barrier disruption on HMG-CoA reductase, LDL receptor, and apolipoprotein E mRNA levels in the epidermis of hairless mice. Jackson, S.M., Wood, L.C., Lauer, S., Taylor, J.M., Cooper, A.D., Elias, P.M., Feingold, K.R. J. Lipid Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Naringin alters the cholesterol biosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities in LDL receptor-knockout mice under cholesterol fed condition. Kim, H.J., Oh, G.T., Park, Y.B., Lee, M.K., Seo, H.J., Choi, M.S. Life Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
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