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MeSH Review

Cavernous Sinus

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Disease relevance of Cavernous Sinus


High impact information on Cavernous Sinus

  • In these studies we noted a bilateral activation in midline structures over several planes that, based on its anatomy, is likely to arise from bilateral large intracranial arteries in the region of the cavernous sinus [6].
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large sellar mass compressing the optic chiasm and invading the left cavernous sinus, whereas a prolactin elevation at 438.6 ng/ml (19.73 nmol/liter) was noted [7].
  • This report describes a patient with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease who had a preoperative ACTH gradient to the left at the level of the cavernous sinus [8].
  • H1 and H2 isoform expression of nm23 was investigated using a ribonuclease protection assay. nm23 H2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression was significantly reduced in invasive tumors and correlated highly (P = 0.0016) with cavernous sinus invasion [9].
  • Clinically, there was no correlation between expression of the PDGF subunits or receptors and tumor size or with invasion into adjacent structures (cavernous sinus, sphenoid sinus, or clivus) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cavernous Sinus


Biological context of Cavernous Sinus


Anatomical context of Cavernous Sinus


Associations of Cavernous Sinus with chemical compounds

  • All four had manifestations of a cavernous sinus syndrome, normal radiologic and medical investigations, and response to steroid therapy [23].
  • Cavernous sinus: correlation between anatomic and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging findings [24].
  • Optimal visualization of the cavernous sinus was obtained with continuous contrast enhancement of both axial and coronal tomograms [20].
  • Detachable latex balloons were used as the embolic material in five patients, and in one patient the cavernous sinus was packed transarterially with coils [25].
  • Six patients were treated with transvenous n-BCA infusion alone in the cavernous sinus, 7 with a combination of transvenous n-BCA and coil embolization, and one with transvenous n-BCA combined with transarterial polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-particle embolization of the feeding arteries [26].

Gene context of Cavernous Sinus


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cavernous Sinus


  1. Shrinkage of inoperable adenomas in cavernous sinus with high-dose octreotide. Donckier, J., Gilliard, C., Buysschaert, M. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Therapy with amphotericin B lipid complex. Strasser, M.D., Kennedy, R.J., Adam, R.D. Arch. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Septic thrombosis of the dural venous sinuses. Southwick, F.S., Richardson, E.P., Swartz, M.N. Medicine (Baltimore) (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Cavernous and inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the evaluation of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Liu, C., Lo, J.C., Dowd, C.F., Wilson, C.B., Kunwar, S., Aron, D.C., Tyrrell, J.B. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Bilateral simultaneous cavernous sinus sampling using corticotropin-releasing hormone in the evaluation of Cushing disease. Oliverio, P.J., Monsein, L.H., Wand, G.S., Debrun, G.M. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Intracranial vessels in trigeminal transmitted pain: A PET study. May, A., Büchel, C., Bahra, A., Goadsby, P.J., Frackowiak, R.S. Neuroimage (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Tumors metastatic to the pituitary gland: case report and literature review. Komninos, J., Vlassopoulou, V., Protopapa, D., Korfias, S., Kontogeorgos, G., Sakas, D.E., Thalassinos, N.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Extrasellar, intracavernous sinus adrenocorticotropin-releasing adenoma causing Cushing's disease. Wilson, C.B., Mindermann, T., Tyrrell, J.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Purine-binding factor (nm23) gene expression in pituitary tumors: marker of adenoma invasiveness. Takino, H., Herman, V., Weiss, M., Melmed, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Messenger ribonucleic acid expression of platelet-derived growth factor subunits and receptors in pituitary adenomas. Leon, S.P., Carroll, R.S., Dashner, K., Glowacka, D., Black, P.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Gadolinium-DTPA and MR imaging of pituitary adenoma: a preliminary report. Davis, P.C., Hoffman, J.C., Malko, J.A., Tindall, G.T., Takei, Y., Avruch, L., Braun, I.F. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Transvenous injection of Onyx for casting of the cavernous sinus for the treatment of a carotid-cavernous fistula. Arat, A., Cekirge, S., Saatci, I., Ozgen, B. Neuroradiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Gallium scintigraphy in a case of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. Palestro, C.J., Malat, J., Gladstone, A.G., Richman, A.H. Clinical nuclear medicine. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Spontaneous dural cavernous sinus fistula in a child. Skolnick, K.A., McDonnell, J.F. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Oxytocin content in the venous blood outflowing from the vicinity of the cavernous sinus and from the femoral vein. Goraca, A. Endocrine regulations. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. From macroprolactinoma to concomitant ACTH-PRL hypersecretion with Cushing's disease. Barausse, M., Attanasio, R., Dallabonzana, D., Oppizzi, G., Veronese, S., Lasio, G., Valentini, L.G., Cozzi, R. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Somatotropinoma infarction during octreotide therapy leading to bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome. Boulis, N.M., Noordmans, A.J., Barkan, A., Hassing, J., Chandler, W.F. Pituitary (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cavernous sinus: case report. Attabib, N.A., West, M., Rhodes, R.H. Neurosurgery (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Selective venous sampling directly from cavernous sinus in Cushing's syndrome. Teramoto, A., Nemoto, S., Takakura, K., Sasaki, Y., Machida, T. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Computed tomographic evaluation of the cavernous sinus. Kline, L.B., Acker, J.D., Post, M.J. Ophthalmology (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Internal carotid plexus schwannoma of the cavernous sinus: case report. Türe, U., Seker, A., Kurtkaya, O., Pamir, M.N. Neurosurgery (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. The paraclinoid carotid artery: anatomical aspects of a microneurosurgical approach. Knosp, E., Müller, G., Perneczky, A. Neurosurgery (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. The "sinister" Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Spector, R.H., Fiandaca, M.S. Neurology (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Cavernous sinus: correlation between anatomic and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging findings. Korogi, Y., Takahashi, M., Sakamoto, Y., Shinzato, J. Radiology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Endovascular treatment strategy for direct carotid-cavernous fistulas resulting from rupture of intracavernous carotid aneurysms. Kobayashi, N., Miyachi, S., Negoro, M., Suzuki, O., Hattori, K., Kojima, T., Yoshida, J. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Transvenous n-butyl-cyanoacrylate infusion for complex dural carotid cavernous fistulas: technical considerations and clinical outcome. Wakhloo, A.K., Perlow, A., Linfante, I., Sandhu, J.S., Cameron, J., Troffkin, N., Schenck, A., Schatz, N.J., Tse, D.T., Lam, B.L. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 expression correlated with cavernous sinus invasion of pituitary adenomas. Liu, W., Matsumoto, Y., Okada, M., Miyake, K., Kunishio, K., Kawai, N., Tamiya, T., Nagao, S. J. Med. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Analysis of the growth rate and cavernous sinus invasion of pituitary adenomas. Kawamoto, H., Uozumi, T., Kawamoto, K., Arita, K., Yano, T., Hirohata, T. Acta neurochirurgica. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Diagnostic value of super-selective bilateral cavernous sinus sampling with hypothalamic stimulating hormone loading in patients with ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma. Fujimura, M., Ikeda, H., Takahashi, A., Ezura, M., Yoshimoto, T., Tominaga, T. Neurol. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Venous rupture during transvenous approach to a carotid-cavernous fistula. Case report. King, W.A., Hieshima, G.B., Martin, N.A. J. Neurosurg. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. The Leksell gamma knife Model U versus Model C: a quantitative comparison of radiosurgical treatment parameters. Kuo, J.S., Yu, C., Giannotta, S.L., Petrovich, Z., Apuzzo, M.L. Neurosurgery (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Hydroxyurea for treatment of unresectable and recurrent meningiomas. II. Decrease in the size of meningiomas in patients treated with hydroxyurea. Schrell, U.M., Rittig, M.G., Anders, M., Koch, U.H., Marschalek, R., Kiesewetter, F., Fahlbusch, R. J. Neurosurg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Pituitary adenoma showing intermittent secretion of high molecular weight adrenocorticotropin without evidence of Cushing's disease. Hashimoto, K., Kaneda, T., Nagano, I., Asaba, K., Takeda, K., Takao, T. Horm. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
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