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Gene Review

CTRL  -  chymotrypsin-like

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CTRL1, Chymotrypsin-like protease CTRL-1
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Disease relevance of CTRL

  • OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to define and compare geographic coronary artery inflammation in patients who were dying of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), chronic stable angina (SA), and noncardiac causes (CTRL) [1].
  • We therefore studied the rate of secretion of esophageal inorganic and organic protective factors in patients with endoscopically negative [E (-)] GERD and compared these results with the corresponding values in asymptomatic volunteers (CTRL) [2].
  • Right atrial appendages from 11 patients with chronic AF and underlying valvular heart disease (AF-VHD) and seven patients in sinus rhythm with VHD (SR-VHD) were individually compared to an age-matched sinus-rhythm control group (SR-CTRL, 11 patients) using cardiac-specific microarray analysis [3].
  • Rhesus monkeys either were untreated (controls, CTRL; n = 3) or received the GnRH antagonist Antide (ANT; 3 mg/kg body weight, n = 3) to inhibit pituitary LH secretion on day 6 of the luteal phase in spontaneous menstrual cycles [4].
  • The study addresses the issue of the role of the cerebellum in human withdrawal-reflex conditioning by comparing data from patients with pure cerebellar diseases (CBL, n = 10) and from cerebellar patients showing additional extracerebellar symptoms (CBL+, n = 10) with those from 11 control subjects (CTRL) [5].

Psychiatry related information on CTRL

  • However, B/F women demonstrated a marked increase in slow wave sleep (SWS), 182 +/- 41 min compared with CTRL (86 +/- 22 min, P < 0.001 compared with B/F) and BOTTLE subjects (63 +/- 29 min, P < 0.001 compared with B/F) [6].
  • Forty-four PSD and forty-four CTRL female rats were distributed into 4 subgroups of 11 animals each according to the phase of estrous cycle and were subjected to sleep deprivation for 96 h by the multiple platform technique [7].
  • Rape survivors with PTSD (PTSD+; n = 15) were compared to rape survivors without PTSD (PTSD-; n = 16) and age- and education-matched nontraumatized controls (CTRL; n = 16) on tests of attention [8].
  • Because independent lines of evidence suggest that a brain chymotrypsin-like protease may be involved in the etiology of Down's syndrome and Alzheimer's disease, clipsin is discussed as a candidate for such a role [9].

High impact information on CTRL

  • The protease has a chymotrypsin-like fold and features a tetrahedrally coordinated metal ion distal to the active site [10].
  • We also demonstrated that CT-L inhibition by a PGPH substrate does not require the occupancy of the PGPH site or hydrolysis of the PGPH substrate [11].
  • In cellular proliferation and protein degradation assays, these inhibitors revealed that selective PGPH inhibition was insufficient to inhibit protein degradation, indicating that the CT-L and PGPH sites function independently [11].
  • Secretory granules of human dermal mast cells contain a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinase called chymase [12].
  • The human skin chymotrypsin-like proteinase produced extensive epidermal-dermal separation, while cathepsin G, at comparable concentrations, produced only focal separations [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of CTRL


Biological context of CTRL

  • There was a compensatory reduction in light non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in B/F when compared with CTRL and BOTTLE [6].
  • A descriptive comparison study was undertaken on 12 fully breastfeeding women (B/F), 12 age-matched control women (CTRL), and seven postnatal women who had chosen to bottle-feed their infants (BOTTLE) [6].
  • The chymotrypsin-like enzyme-1 gene is located on chromosome 16q22.1 in a tight cluster with four unrelated genes [18].
  • All subjects then received an infusion of 14C-labeled leucine and tritiated phenylalanine, followed by measurement of baseline protein kinetics (GH and CTRL) [19].
  • Offspring of Wistar dams fed a normal (CTRL) or low (LP)-protein diet during gestation were studied [20].

Anatomical context of CTRL

  • Increased pancreatic secretion of CTRL-1 was induced by protease inhibitors indicating that the enzyme is secreted from pancreas upon feedback stimulation [18].
  • METHODS: We examined 544 coronary artery segments from 16 patients with AMI, 109 segments from 5 patients with SA, and 304 coronary segments from 9 patients with CTRL [1].
  • For this purpose, we measured the number of abnormal alveolar attachments and quantified the content of elastic fibers in the adventitial layer of small airways and in the peribronchial and distal alveolar septa of 15 patients who died of asthma (FA) and 9 control subjects (CTRL) [21].
  • Needle biopsy samples were taken from vastus lateralis muscle (VL) of five male body builders (BB, age 27.4+/-0.93 years; mean+/-s.e.m.), who had being performing hypertrophic heavy resistance exercise (HHRE) for at least 2 years, and from five male active, but untrained control subjects (CTRL, age 29.9+/-2.01 years) [22].
  • Ca2+ current densities in myocytes from CMP hamsters were -6.6 +/- 0.6 versus -8.3 +/- 0.5 microA/cm2 (P < 0.05) in CTRL [23].

Associations of CTRL with chemical compounds

  • The gene of a novel chymotrypsin-like serine protease has been cloned from human pancreas [18].
  • Both native and recombinant CTRL-1 displayed chymotrypsin- and elastase-2-like activities and hydrolyzed the amide bonds of substrates having tyrosine, phenylalanine, or leucine residues at the P1 position [18].
  • Eight male cyclists exercised at > or = 90% peak O2 uptake to exhaustion (CTRL) [24].
  • The data suggest that the CO2 sensitivity of ventilation is similar at low levels of IPS as during CTRL [25].
  • We compared coagulation and fibrinolytic activation during conventional CPB (control) (CTRL) using noncoated circuits, no antifibrinolytics, and open cardiotomy with a combined strategy (HAC) that used heparin-coated circuits, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, and closed cardiotomy [26].

Physical interactions of CTRL


Enzymatic interactions of CTRL


Regulatory relationships of CTRL


Other interactions of CTRL

  • Serum concentrations of PRL at slaughter were greater (P < 0.01) in both 4PRL and 8PRL compared with CTRL, whereas at mid-treatment, they were greater (P < 0.05) only in 8PRL gilts [33].
  • ANG II-induced contraction of carotid rings was increased in LP (E(max), the maximum asymptote of the curve, relative to maximal response to KCl 80 mM: 230 +/- 3% LP vs. 201 +/- 2% CTRL, P < 0.05) [29].
  • This paper presents evidence that alpha 1-antichymotrypsin in lung secretions is not effective as an inhibitor of chymotrypsin-like enzymes [34].
  • When isolated from semen by the addition of chromatography on aprotinin-Sepharose to a previously described procedure, PSA displayed chymotrypsin-like activity and cleaved semenogelin and the semenogelin-related proteins in a rapid and characteristic pattern, but had no trypsin-like activity [35].
  • After IL-2 culture for 7 days, blood CD4 T cells from the patients did not preferentially expand as compared to RP and Ctrl [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CTRL

  • On a separate occasion, subjects exercised for the same duration and power output as CTRL (13.2 +/- 0.9 min, 292 W), but force output of the inspiratory muscles was reduced (-56% versus CTRL) using a proportional assist ventilator (PAV) [24].
  • The nonbicarbonate buffer secretion during perfusion with HCl and HCl/Pepsin as well as the rate of esophageal TGFalpha output during infusion of final saline in patients with E (-) GERD were significantly lower than in CTRL group (p < 0.05) [2].
  • METHODS: Ninety-four subjects were included in this comparative cross-sectional study of healthy (CTRL), primary-open-angle-glaucoma (POAG), ocular-hypertension (OHT), and normal-tension-glaucoma (NTG) volunteers [37].
  • Twenty-two of these 25 cDNA were validated by RT-PCR as differentially expressed in the ANT group, relative to the CTRL group, and 11 of 25 changed (P < 0.05) correspondingly in the late-to-very late luteal phase [4].
  • METHODS: Case control study of 14 patients (12 men, 2 women) with severe lung disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD n=5; cystic fibrosis, CF n=9) and 5 control subjects (CTRL, 4 men, 1 woman) [38].


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  10. Crystal structure of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease domain complexed with a synthetic NS4A cofactor peptide. Kim, J.L., Morgenstern, K.A., Lin, C., Fox, T., Dwyer, M.D., Landro, J.A., Chambers, S.P., Markland, W., Lepre, C.A., O'Malley, E.T., Harbeson, S.L., Rice, C.M., Murcko, M.A., Caron, P.R., Thomson, J.A. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
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  13. Degradation of the epidermal-dermal junction by proteolytic enzymes from human skin and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Briggaman, R.A., Schechter, N.M., Fraki, J., Lazarus, G.S. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of acid-base balance on the growth hormone response to acute high-intensity cycle exercise. Gordon, S.E., Kraemer, W.J., Vos, N.H., Lynch, J.M., Knuttgen, H.G. J. Appl. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  19. Growth hormone and insulin combine to improve whole-body and skeletal muscle protein kinetics. Wolf, R.F., Heslin, M.J., Newman, E., Pearlstone, D.B., Gonenne, A., Brennan, M.F. Surgery (1992) [Pubmed]
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