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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Sperm Tail

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Disease relevance of Sperm Tail


High impact information on Sperm Tail

  • The SPIH channel, which is confined to the sperm flagellum, may be involved in the control of flagellar beating [6].
  • Subsequent resuspension in a reactivation buffer containing 0.4 mM CaCl2 and 1.0 mM MgATP2- resulted in quiescent, rather than motile, cells and each sperm tail axoneme took on an extreme, basal principal bend of 5.2 rad [7].
  • SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of demembranated toad sperm tails reveals two principal proteins in addition to the tubulins, the former probably arising from the accessory fibers and the matrix of the undulating membrane [8].
  • The presence of all the components of the protein carboxyl-methylation system in spermatozoa and the localization of PCM and some of its substrates in the sperm tail are consistent with their involvement in sperm cell motility [9].
  • Kinetic analysis demonstrated that EHNA produced mixed inhibition of both the axonemal ATPase and the partially purified dynein 1 from sea urchin sperm tails, as well as the axonemal ATPase of rat sperm tails [10].

Biological context of Sperm Tail


Anatomical context of Sperm Tail


Associations of Sperm Tail with chemical compounds

  • Sperm tails had more polyunsaturated fatty acids than the heads (34.1 vs. 12.1% of total fatty acids) which resulted mainly from the higher contents of DHA (19.6 vs. 1.1%) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) (6.4 vs. 1.6%) in the tails [14].
  • In the cauda, the polypeptide is found on the midpiece and endpiece of the sperm tail, in detergent extracts of sperm, and in epididymal luminal fluid-enriched fractions [21].
  • In this study, we have shown data supporting that boar sperm flagellum possesses a unique cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling cascade leading to phosphorylation of Syk PTK at the tyrosine residues of the activation loop [22].
  • Further characterization of a secreted epididymal glycoprotein in mice that binds to sperm tails [23].
  • Modulation of sperm tail protein tyrosine phosphorylation by pentoxifylline and its correlation with hyperactivated motility [24].

Gene context of Sperm Tail

  • These results are consistent with an essential housekeeping or developmental function for PMCA1, but not PMCA4, and show that PMCA4 expression in the principle piece of the sperm tail is essential for hyperactivated motility and male fertility [25].
  • Drosophila KAP interacts with the kinesin II motor subunit KLP64D to assemble chordotonal sensory cilia, but not sperm tails [26].
  • Voltage-dependent anion-selective channels VDAC2 and VDAC3 are abundant proteins in bovine outer dense fibers, a cytoskeletal component of the sperm flagellum [27].
  • Our data suggest a role for Spag4 in protein localization to two major sperm tail structures [28].
  • MCT2 has a ten-fold higher affinity for substrates than MCT1 and MCT4 and is found in cells where rapid uptake at low substrate concentrations may be required, including the proximal kidney tubules, neurons and sperm tails [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sperm Tail


  1. The immotile-cilia syndrome. A congenital ciliary abnormality as an etiologic factor in chronic airway infections and male sterility. Eliasson, R., Mossberg, B., Camner, P., Afzelius, B.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. The Hook1 gene is non-functional in the abnormal spermatozoon head shape (azh) mutant mouse. Mendoza-Lujambio, I., Burfeind, P., Dixkens, C., Meinhardt, A., Hoyer-Fender, S., Engel, W., Neesen, J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical presentation, diagnosis and genetics. Van's Gravesande, K.S., Omran, H. Ann. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular evaluation of two major human sperm fibrous sheath proteins, pro-hAKAP82 and hAKAP82, in stump tail sperm. Turner, R.M., Foster, J.A., Gerton, G.L., Moss, S.B., Patrizio, P. Fertil. Steril. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Search for eukaryotic motility proteins in spirochetes: immunological detection of a tektin-like protein in Spirochaeta halophila. Barth, A.L., Stricker, J.A., Margulis, L. BioSystems (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular identification of a hyperpolarization-activated channel in sea urchin sperm. Gauss, R., Seifert, R., Kaupp, U.B. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. The axonemal axis and Ca2+-induced asymmetry of active microtubule sliding in sea urchin sperm tails. Sale, W.S. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Structure and function of the undulating membrane in spermatozoan propulsion in the toad Bufo marinus. Swan, M.A., Linck, R.W., Ito, S., Fawcett, D.W. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. The localization of protein carboxyl-methylase in sperm tails. Bouchard, P., Gagnon, C., Phillips, D.M., Bardin, C.W. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. erythro-9-[3-(2-Hydroxynonyl)]adenine is an inhibitor of sperm motility that blocks dynein ATPase and protein carboxylmethylase activities. Bouchard, P., Penningroth, S.M., Cheung, A., Gagnon, C., Bardin, C.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. An X-linked gene encodes a major human sperm fibrous sheath protein, hAKAP82. Genomic organization, protein kinase A-RII binding, and distribution of the precursor in the sperm tail. Turner, R.M., Johnson, L.R., Haig-Ladewig, L., Gerton, G.L., Moss, S.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Targeted disruption of the Akap4 gene causes defects in sperm flagellum and motility. Miki, K., Willis, W.D., Brown, P.R., Goulding, E.H., Fulcher, K.D., Eddy, E.M. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Positive selection for indel substitutions in the rodent sperm protein catsper1. Podlaha, O., Webb, D.M., Tucker, P.K., Zhang, J. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Uneven distribution of desmosterol and docosahexaenoic acid in the heads and tails of monkey sperm. Connor, W.E., Lin, D.S., Wolf, D.P., Alexander, M. J. Lipid Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Androcam, a Drosophila calmodulin-related protein, is expressed specifically in the testis and decorates loop kl-3 of the Y chromosome. Lu, A.Q., Beckingham, K. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of a germ-cell-specific transcriptional repressor in the promoter of Tctex-1. O'Neill, M.J., Artzt, K. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. cDNA cloning of MCT2, a second monocarboxylate transporter expressed in different cells than MCT1. Garcia, C.K., Brown, M.S., Pathak, R.K., Goldstein, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. The Drosophila fragile X-related gene regulates axoneme differentiation during spermatogenesis. Zhang, Y.Q., Matthies, H.J., Mancuso, J., Andrews, H.K., Woodruff, E., Friedman, D., Broadie, K. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Tracing the incorporation of the sperm tail in the mouse zygote and early embryo using an anti-testicular alpha-tubulin antibody. Simerly, C.R., Hecht, N.B., Goldberg, E., Schatten, G. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation, localization, and anchoring of protein kinase A subunits during mouse sperm capacitation. Visconti, P.E., Johnson, L.R., Oyaski, M., Fornés, M., Moss, S.B., Gerton, G.L., Kopf, G.S. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of a 23 kDa sperm-binding polypeptide of the golden hamster epididymis. Hoos, P.C., Olson, G.E. Biol. Reprod. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. A cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk protein tyrosine kinase in the flagella of boar spermatozoa. Harayama, H., Muroga, M., Miyake, M. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Further characterization of a secreted epididymal glycoprotein in mice that binds to sperm tails. Vernon, R.B., Muller, C.H., Eddy, E.M. J. Androl. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Modulation of sperm tail protein tyrosine phosphorylation by pentoxifylline and its correlation with hyperactivated motility. Nassar, A., Mahony, M., Morshedi, M., Lin, M.H., Srisombut, C., Oehninger, S. Fertil. Steril. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Targeted ablation of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) 1 and 4 indicates a major housekeeping function for PMCA1 and a critical role in hyperactivated sperm motility and male fertility for PMCA4. Okunade, G.W., Miller, M.L., Pyne, G.J., Sutliff, R.L., O'Connor, K.T., Neumann, J.C., Andringa, A., Miller, D.A., Prasad, V., Doetschman, T., Paul, R.J., Shull, G.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Drosophila KAP interacts with the kinesin II motor subunit KLP64D to assemble chordotonal sensory cilia, but not sperm tails. Sarpal, R., Todi, S.V., Sivan-Loukianova, E., Shirolikar, S., Subramanian, N., Raff, E.C., Erickson, J.W., Ray, K., Eberl, D.F. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Voltage-dependent anion-selective channels VDAC2 and VDAC3 are abundant proteins in bovine outer dense fibers, a cytoskeletal component of the sperm flagellum. Hinsch, K.D., De Pinto, V., Aires, V.A., Schneider, X., Messina, A., Hinsch, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Spag4, a novel sperm protein, binds outer dense-fiber protein Odf1 and localizes to microtubules of manchette and axoneme. Shao, X., Tarnasky, H.A., Lee, J.P., Oko, R., van der Hoorn, F.A. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. The proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family: structure, function and regulation. Halestrap, A.P., Price, N.T. Biochem. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Association of kinesin light chain with outer dense fibers in a microtubule-independent fashion. Bhullar, B., Zhang, Y., Junco, A., Oko, R., van der Hoorn, F.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of a human antigen with sera from infertile patients. Diekman, A.B., Goldberg, E. Biol. Reprod. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Chloride channels in physiological volume regulation of human spermatozoa. Yeung, C.H., Barfield, J.P., Cooper, T.G. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Molecular cloning and characterization of a complementary DNA encoding sperm tail protein SHIPPO 1. Egydio de Carvalho, C., Tanaka, H., Iguchi, N., Ventelä, S., Nojima, H., Nishimune, Y. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Spef1, a conserved novel testis protein found in mouse sperm flagella. Chan, S.W., Fowler, K.J., Choo, K.H., Kalitsis, P. Gene (2005) [Pubmed]
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