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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Costa Rica

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Disease relevance of Costa Rica


High impact information on Costa Rica

  • We designed a multistage study in the genetically isolated population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica to identify genes that promote susceptibility to severe BP (termed BPI), and screened the genome ot two Costa Rican BPI pedigrees (McInnes et al., submitted) [6].
  • Larvae of the bruchid beetle Caryedes brasiliensis, collected in Costa Rica, subsist solely on tissues of the mature seed of Dioclea megacarpa, which contains more than 8 percent L-canavanine by dry weight [7].
  • METHODS: We screened 9175 women in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, to obtain a referent standard final diagnosis, and tested 3024 women for more than 40 types of HPV with a polymerase chain reaction-based system [8].
  • Here, we ask whether the cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcode could function as a tool for species identification and discovery for the 20 morphospecies of Belvosia parasitoid flies (Diptera: Tachinidae) that have been reared from caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica [9].
  • Extraordinary variation in sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b within a clade of the genus Bolitoglossa in Costa Rica reveals strong phylogeographic structure within a single species, Bolitoglossa pesrubra [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Costa Rica


Biological context of Costa Rica

  • In addition to examining the forces of molecular evolution, we extend hypotheses about interspecific relationships within this family for geographical locations previously unexamined by molecular methods including habitats near the Middle Atlantic, the Aleutian Trench, and Costa Rica [12].
  • This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of epilepsy in Guaymi Indians residing in Changuinola, a small town on Panama's Caribbean coast near Costa Rica [13].
  • OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic association between an SNP in exon 4 of the IL-13 gene (IL-13 + 2044 or Arg130Gln) and total serum IgE level and asthma-related phenotypes in a population with high prevalence of asthma living in Costa Rica [14].
  • We studied the levels of genetic diversity of Swietenia macrophylla (big leaf mahogany) in five successional plots in the Santa Rosa National Park, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [15].
  • Fortification of wheat flour in 1997 and corn flour in 1999 with folic acid among other micronutrients was implemented in Costa Rica by means of two decrees, resulting in an effective public health impact [16].

Anatomical context of Costa Rica


Associations of Costa Rica with chemical compounds

  • By 1981, 11% of married women in Costa Rica ages 20-49 years had used depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and 58% had used oral contraceptives (OCs) [2].
  • For example, King County participants had the highest daily intake of vitamin C (mean 78.3 +/- 12.2 mg compared with 42.6 +/- 38.3 mg in Shanghai and 34.8 +/- 43.8 mg in Costa Rica) [18].
  • The objective of this study was to examine the intake and plasma concentrations of the major carotenoids and tocopherols in 159 adolescents (mean +/- SD, 15.5 +/- 2.5 y old) living in Costa Rica [19].
  • Dust samples from the metropolitan area (temperate climate) of Costa Rica contained higher levels of guanine (P < 0.01) and Der p 1 (P = 0.07) than the coastal areas, but very little Der f 1 [20].
  • Allergen sensitization of asthmatic and nonasthmatic schoolchildren in Costa Rica [21].

Gene context of Costa Rica


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Costa Rica

  • A region of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 1,105 mosquitoes collected from 16 locations in Guatemala and in single collections from Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela [27].
  • Ouchterlony immunodiffusion analysis of purified antibodies showed two precipitation bands with a pattern of complete immunologic identity between samples of crude B. asper venoms from specimens collected in the Atlantic and Pacific regions of Costa Rica [28].
  • To study the question of whether one brand of oral contraceptives may be as acceptable as another for use of publicly-assisted family planning programs, a double blind study of two well-known brands, Ovral and Norinyl, was undertaken in Costa Rica and Trinidad. The pills were randomly assigned to 1,200 women [29].
  • Conventional microscopic screening performed in Costa Rica resulted in the hypothetical referral of 6.5% of patients with > or =ASCUS for colposcopy, including 69.5% of patients with > or =SIL and 79.8% of those with > or =high grade SIL [30].
  • Butorphanol/xylazine/ketamine immobilization of free-ranging Baird's tapirs in Costa Rica [31].


  1. The beneficial effects of early dexamethasone administration in infants and children with bacterial meningitis. Odio, C.M., Faingezicht, I., Paris, M., Nassar, M., Baltodano, A., Rogers, J., Sáez-Llorens, X., Olsen, K.D., McCracken, G.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. A case-control study of breast cancer and hormonal contraception in Costa Rica. Lee, N.C., Rosero-Bixby, L., Oberle, M.W., Grimaldo, C., Whatley, A.S., Rovira, E.Z. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Genetic variants of the lipoprotein lipase gene and myocardial infarction in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Yang, Y., Ruiz-Narvaez, E., Niu, T., Xu, X., Campos, H. J. Lipid Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. In vivo nitrosoproline formation and other risk factors in Costa Rican children from high- and low-risk areas for gastric cancer. Sierra, R., Chinnock, A., Ohshima, H., Pignatelli, B., Malaveille, C., Gamboa, C., Teuchmann, S., Muñoz, N., Bartsch, H. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Microbiology of acute otitis media in Costa Rican children. Arguedas, A., Loaiza, C., Perez, A., Vargas, F., Herrera, M., Rodriguez, G., Gutierrez, A., Mohs, E. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic mapping using haplotype, association and linkage methods suggests a locus for severe bipolar disorder (BPI) at 18q22-q23. Freimer, N.B., Reus, V.I., Escamilla, M.A., McInnes, L.A., Spesny, M., Leon, P., Service, S.K., Smith, L.B., Silva, S., Rojas, E., Gallegos, A., Meza, L., Fournier, E., Baharloo, S., Blankenship, K., Tyler, D.J., Batki, S., Vinogradov, S., Weissenbach, J., Barondes, S.H., Sandkuijl, L.A. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. A novel means for dealing with L-canavanine, a toxic metabolite. Rosenthal, G.A., Dahlman, D.L., Janzen, D.H. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. Population-based study of human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia in rural Costa Rica. Herrero, R., Hildesheim, A., Bratti, C., Sherman, M.E., Hutchinson, M., Morales, J., Balmaceda, I., Greenberg, M.D., Alfaro, M., Burk, R.D., Wacholder, S., Plummer, M., Schiffman, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. DNA barcodes reveal cryptic host-specificity within the presumed polyphagous members of a genus of parasitoid flies (Diptera: Tachinidae). Smith, M.A., Woodley, N.E., Janzen, D.H., Hallwachs, W., Hebert, P.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Inaugural article: biodiversity of Costa Rican salamanders: implications of high levels of genetic differentiation and phylogeographic structure for species formation. Garcia-Paris, M., Good, D.A., Parra-Olea, G., Wake, D.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Arachidonic acid in adipose tissue is associated with nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in the central valley of Costa Rica. Baylin, A., Campos, H. J. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Neutral and nonneutral mitochondrial genetic variation in deep-sea clams from the family vesicomyidae. Peek, A.S., Gaut, B.S., Feldman, R.A., Barry, J.P., Kochevar, R.E., Lutz, R.A., Vrijenhoek, R.C. J. Mol. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Epidemiology of epilepsy in Guaymi Indians from Bocas del Toro Province, Republic of Panama. Gracia, F., de Lao, S.L., Castillo, L., Larreategui, M., Archbold, C., Brenes, M.M., Reeves, W.C. Epilepsia (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Lack of association between a polymorphism in the interleukin-13 gene and total serum immunoglobulin E level among nuclear families in Costa Rica. Celedón, J.C., Soto-Quiros, M.E., Palmer, L.J., Senter, J., Mosley, J., Silverman, E.K., Weiss, S.T. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Restoration of genetic diversity in the dry forest tree Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae) after pasture abandonment in Costa Rica. Céspedes, M., Gutierrez, M.V., Holbrook, N.M., J Rocha, O. Mol. Ecol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. The Costa Rican experience: reduction of neural tube defects following food fortification programs. Chen, L.T., Rivera, M.A. Nutr. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Lupeol is the cytotoxic principle in the leaf extract of Dendropanax cf. querceti. Moriarity, D.M., Huang, J., Yancey, C.A., Zhang, P., Setzer, W.N., Lawton, R.O., Bates, R.B., Caldera, S. Planta Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Study of diet, biomarkers and cancer risk in the United States, China and Costa Rica. Satia, J.A., Patterson, R.E., Herrero, R., Jin, F., Dai, Q., King, I.B., Chen, C., Kristal, A.R., Prentice, R.L., Rossing, M.A. Int. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Frequent intake of tropical fruits that are rich in beta-cryptoxanthin is associated with higher plasma beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations in Costa Rican adolescents. Irwig, M.S., El-Sohemy, A., Baylin, A., Rifai, N., Campos, H. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Guanine, mite, and cockroach allergens in Costa Rican homes. Soto-Quiros, M.E., Ståhl, A., Calderon, O., Sanchez, C., Hanson, L.A., Belin, L. Allergy (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Allergen sensitization of asthmatic and nonasthmatic schoolchildren in Costa Rica. Soto-Quiros, M., Gutierrez, I., Calvo, N., Araya, C., Karlberg, J., Hanson, L.A., Belin, L. Allergy (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Arginine to tryptophan substitution in the active site of a human lactate dehydrogenase variant--LDHB GUA1: postulated effects on subunit structure and catalysis. Shonnard, G.C., Hud, N.V., Mohrenweiser, H.W. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Allele frequencies of markers LDLR, GYPA, D7S8, HBGG, GC, HLA-DQA1 and D1S80 in the general and minority populations of Costa Rica. Morales, A.I., Morera, B., Jiménez-Arce, G., Sánchez-Rivera, G., Calafell, F., Barrantes, R. Forensic Sci. Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Nicaraguan population data on LDLR, GYPA, D7S8, HBGG, GC and HLA-DQA1 loci. Morera, B., Sánchez-Rivera, G., Jiménez-Arce, G., Calafell, F., Morales-Cordero, A.I. Rev. Biol. Trop. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Mutation analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants in Costa Rica. Beutler, E., Kuhl, W., Sáenz, G.F., Rodríguez, W. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. RRNA and dnaK relationships of Bradyrhizobium sp. nodule bacteria from four papilionoid legume trees in Costa Rica. Parker, M.A. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Mitochondrial DNA variation among Anopheles albimanus populations. De Merida, A.M., Palmieri, M., Yurrita, M., Molina, A., Molina, E., Black, W.C. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Isolation from a polyvalent antivenom of antibodies to a myotoxin in Bothrops asper snake venom. Lomonte, B., Gutiérrez, J.M., Mata, E. Toxicon (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. A randomized double blind study of two oral contraceptives. Sanhueza, H., Sivin, I., Kumar, S., Kessler, M., Carrasco, A., Yee, J. Contraception. (1979) [Pubmed]
  30. Performance of a semiautomated Papanicolaou smear screening system: results of a population-based study conducted in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Sherman, M.E., Schiffman, M., Herrero, R., Kelly, D., Bratti, C., Mango, L.J., Alfaro, M., Hutchinson, M.L., Mena, F., Hildesheim, A., Morales, J., Greenberg, M.D., Balmaceda, I., Lorincz, A.T. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Butorphanol/xylazine/ketamine immobilization of free-ranging Baird's tapirs in Costa Rica. Foerster, S.H., Bailey, J.E., Aguilar, R., Loria, D.L., Foerster, C.R. J. Wildl. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
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