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Chemical Compound Review

Perlutex     [(6S,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,17R)- 17-ethanoyl-6...

Synonyms: Provera, Veramix, Gestapuran, Progestins, Depo-Provera, ...
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Disease relevance of Medroxyprogesterone acetate


Psychiatry related information on Medroxyprogesterone acetate


High impact information on Medroxyprogesterone acetate

  • Since more than 1.5 million women worldwide are currently receiving injections of a contraceptive progestin, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, this is potentially an important public health problem [11].
  • After adjustment for CD4 count, cervical proviral shedding was significantly associated with use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.5-5.7), and with use of low-dose and high-dose oral contraceptive pills (3.8, 1.4-9.9 and 12.3, 1.5-101, respectively) [12].
  • Provera administered in vivo had no effect on either dehydrogenase activity in soluble estradiol receptor-poor carcinomata, whereas both dehydrogenase activities were high in some but not all soluble estradiol receptor-rich tumors [13].
  • Examination of a variety of steroidal contraceptives as modulators of the dehydrogenase indicates that ethinylestradiol is a very poor inhibitor (IC50 = 100 microM), while 6-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) is an extremely potent inhibitor (IC50 = 0.2 microM) [14].
  • Combination use of premarin and provera was significantly associated with increased apolipoprotein A-I levels; less powerful but still significant associations with increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also observed [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Medroxyprogesterone acetate


Biological context of Medroxyprogesterone acetate

  • The bone density at the spine was 1.086 +/- 0.085 g/cm(2) in the DMPA group, 1.103 +/- 0.095 g/cm(2) in the oral contraceptive group, and 1.093 +/- 0.090 g/cm(2) in nonusers (P = 0.051) [21].
  • Vitamin fluctuations in the blood of female baboons in relation to normal menstrual cycles, treatments with Lo-Ovral or Depo-Provera and a selected vitamin supplement [22].
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: An observational cohort study of 526 Hispanic women with prior GDM who were not diabetic in their postpartum visit during January 1987 to October 1997 and who elected DMPA (n = 96) or COCs (n = 430) as initial contraception were followed for a maximum of 9.2 years with a median follow-up of approximately 12 months [4].
  • This report describes a study of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and testosterone undecanoate (TU) injected at 8-wk intervals for suppression of spermatogenesis in healthy Chinese men [23].
  • The results suggest that in women using DMPA bone resorption exceeded bone formation [21].

Anatomical context of Medroxyprogesterone acetate


Associations of Medroxyprogesterone acetate with other chemical compounds

  • This allowed characterization of both receptor subclasses individually and study of them in various physiological and pharmacological conditions in the human, i.e. during different phases of the menstrual cycle, in postmenopausal women, term pregnancy, and during depo-progestin (medroxyprogesterone acetate) therapy [28].
  • By contrast, no effects were elicited by adding EGF with E2, or by the separate additions of EGF, MPA, or E2 plus MPA [29].
  • We hypothesized that testosterone (T) transdermal gel (T gel) could be combined with a depot formulation of the progestin, depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), with or without the potent GnRH antagonist, acyline, to suppress spermatogenesis conveniently, rapidly, and reversibly [30].
  • Of eight studies that performed sequential oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) after at least 6 months of Depo-Provera or Norplant use, seven found significant elevations (approximate doubling) of insulin at 2 or 3 h after glucose challenge; the effects on fasting, half-hour, or 1-h postchallenge insulin values were less consistent [31].
  • After treatment of seven PM women for 2 months with 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens and seven other PM women with 150 mg im depomedroxyprogesterone acetate, vasomotor symptoms decreased significantly [32].

Gene context of Medroxyprogesterone acetate


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Medroxyprogesterone acetate


  1. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and breast cancer. A pooled analysis of the World Health Organization and New Zealand studies. Skegg, D.C., Noonan, E.A., Paul, C., Spears, G.F., Meirik, O., Thomas, D.B. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Diabetes and depot medroxyprogesterone contraception in Navajo women. Kim, C., Seidel, K.W., Begier, E.A., Kwok, Y.S. Arch. Intern. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Association of hormonal contraception and HIV-seroprevalence in Nairobi, Kenya. Criniti, A., Mwachari, C.W., Meier, A.S., Nduba, V., Sanguli, L., Ngumo, J.K., Cohen, C.R. AIDS (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Long-acting injectable progestin contraception and risk of type 2 diabetes in Latino women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. Xiang, A.H., Kawakubo, M., Kjos, S.L., Buchanan, T.A. Diabetes Care (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Short-term effects of a progestational contraceptive drug on food intake, resting energy expenditure, and body weight in young women. Pelkman, C.L., Chow, M., Heinbach, R.A., Rolls, B.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Depressive symptoms and Depo-Provera. Westhoff, C., Truman, C., Kalmuss, D., Cushman, L., Davidson, A., Rulin, M., Heartwell, S. Contraception. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. The effects of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on copulation-related and agonistic behaviors in an island colony of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Linn, G.S., Steklis, H.D. Physiol. Behav. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Hormone and hormonal agents in the treatment of aggression. Blumer, D., Migeon, C. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Will the pill make me sterile? Addressing reproductive health concerns and strategies to improve adherence to hormonal contraceptive regimens in adolescent girls. Clark, L.R. Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Associations between fracture incidence and use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and anti-epileptic drugs in women with developmental disabilities. Watson, K.C., Lentz, M.J., Cain, K.C. Women's health issues : official publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Risk of breast, uterine corpus, and ovarian cancer in women receiving medroxyprogesterone injections. Liang, A.P., Levenson, A.G., Layde, P.M., Shelton, J.D., Hatcher, R.A., Potts, M., Michelson, M.J. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Hormonal contraception, vitamin A deficiency, and other risk factors for shedding of HIV-1 infected cells from the cervix and vagina. Mostad, S.B., Overbaugh, J., DeVange, D.M., Welch, M.J., Chohan, B., Mandaliya, K., Nyange, P., Martin, H.L., Ndinya-Achola, J., Bwayo, J.J., Kreiss, J.K. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Simple biochemical method to assess progestin effects on human endometrial DNA synthesis and its application to endometrial carcinoma. King, R.J., Raju, K.S., Siddle, N.C., Taylor, R.W., Whitehead, M.I. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Purification and properties of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from rat brain cytosol. Inhibition by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and progestins. Penning, T.M., Sharp, R.B., Krieger, N.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. The impact of female hormone usage on the lipid profile. The Framingham Offspring Study. Vaziri, S.M., Evans, J.C., Larson, M.G., Wilson, P.W. Arch. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. The role of progestins in the treatment of breast cancer. Blumenschein, G.R. Semin. Oncol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. A pilot study of ovarian cancer chemoprevention using medroxyprogesterone acetate in an avian model of spontaneous ovarian carcinogenesis. Barnes, M.N., Berry, W.D., Straughn, J.M., Kirby, T.O., Leath, C.A., Huh, W.K., Grizzle, W.E., Partridge, E.E. Gynecol. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. In vitro responsiveness of ovarian epithelial carcinomas to endocrine therapy. Runge, H.M., Teufel, G., Neulen, J., Geyer, H., Pfleiderer, A. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Decreased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase in the endometrium of women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate: a role for altered endometrial matrix metalloproteinase/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase balance in the pathogenesis of abnormal uterine bleeding? Vincent, A.J., Zhang, J., Ostör, A., Rogers, P.A., Affandi, B., Kovacs, G., Salamonsen, L.A. Hum. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Endocrine therapy testing of human breast cancers in the soft agar clonogenic assay. Osborne, C.K., Von Hoff, D.D., Mullins, K. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of contraceptive use on bone biochemical markers in young women. Ott, S.M., Scholes, D., LaCroix, A.Z., Ichikawa, L.E., Yoshida, C.K., Barlow, W.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Vitamin fluctuations in the blood of female baboons in relation to normal menstrual cycles, treatments with Lo-Ovral or Depo-Provera and a selected vitamin supplement. Boots, L.R., Cornwell, P.E., Donahue, M.A., Bradley, E.L. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Male hormonal contraception: effects of injections of testosterone undecanoate and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate at eight-week intervals in chinese men. Gu, Y.Q., Tong, J.S., Ma, D.Z., Wang, X.H., Yuan, D., Tang, W.H., Bremner, W.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Stimulation of arylsulfotransferase activity by progestins in human endometrium in vitro. Tseng, L., Liu, H.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of testosterone plus medroxyprogesterone acetate on semen quality, reproductive hormones, and germ cell populations in normal young men. McLachlan, R.I., O'Donnell, L., Stanton, P.G., Balourdos, G., Frydenberg, M., de Kretser, D.M., Robertson, D.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Migraine in the menopause. Fettes, I. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Myometrial beta 1-adrenoreceptors are detectable only in the midfollicular phase. Bottari, S.P., Severne, Y., Kaivez, E., Lescrainier, J.P., Roberts, J.M., Vauquelin, G.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential regulation of alpha-adrenergic receptor subclasses by gonadal steroids in human myometrium. Bottari, S.P., Vokaer, A., Kaivez, E., Lescrainier, J.P., Vauquelin, G.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Progestin-epidermal growth factor regulation of tissue factor expression during decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. Lockwood, C.J., Krikun, G., Runic, R., Schwartz, L.B., Mesia, A.F., Schatz, F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Testosterone gel combined with depomedroxyprogesterone acetate is an effective male hormonal contraceptive regimen and is not enhanced by the addition of a GnRH antagonist. Page, S.T., Amory, J.K., Anawalt, B.D., Irwig, M.S., Brockenbrough, A.T., Matsumoto, A.M., Bremner, W.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of injectable or implantable progestin-only contraceptives on insulin-glucose metabolism and diabetes risk. Kahn, H.S., Curtis, K.M., Marchbanks, P.A. Diabetes Care (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Differences in the ratio of bioactive to immunoreactive serum luteinizing hormone during vasomotor flushes and hormonal therapy in postmenopausal women. Chang, S.P., Shoupe, D., Kletzky, O.A., Lobo, R.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1984) [Pubmed]
  33. Progestin and G protein-coupled receptor 30 inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Ahola, T.M., Alkio, N., Manninen, T., Ylikomi, T. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Progestin-based contraceptive suppresses cellular immune responses in SHIV-infected rhesus macaques. Trunova, N., Tsai, L., Tung, S., Schneider, E., Harouse, J., Gettie, A., Simon, V., Blanchard, J., Cheng-Mayer, C. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3 and mast cells are present in the endometrium of women using progestin-only contraceptives. Vincent, A.J., Zhang, J., Ostor, A., Rogers, P.A., Affandi, B., Kovacs, G., Salamonsen, L.A. Hum. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Mortality among young black women using contraceptives. Ory, H.W., Rubin, G.L., Jones, V., Wingo, P., DeStefano, F., Peterson, H., Guidotti, R., Layde, P.M., Levenson, A.G., Michelson, M. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  37. A case-control study of breast cancer and hormonal contraception in Costa Rica. Lee, N.C., Rosero-Bixby, L., Oberle, M.W., Grimaldo, C., Whatley, A.S., Rovira, E.Z. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  38. Use of injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in lactating Indian women. Sathyamala, C., Shah, P., Jain, Y., Bhargava, A. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Depo-medroxyprogesterone in Women on Antiretroviral Therapy: Effective Contraception and Lack of Clinically Significant Interactions. Cohn, S.E., Park, J.G., Watts, D.H., Stek, A., Hitti, J., Clax, P.A., Yu, S., Lertora, J.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2007) [Pubmed]
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