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Chemical Compound Review

Didronel     (1-hydroxy-1-phosphono- ethyl)phosphonic acid

Synonyms: Osteoscan, etidronate, EHDP, HEDP, Etidronsaeure, ...
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Disease relevance of Etidronic acid


Psychiatry related information on Etidronic acid


High impact information on Etidronic acid


Chemical compound and disease context of Etidronic acid


Biological context of Etidronic acid


Anatomical context of Etidronic acid

  • Thus, the resorption-antagonizing capacities of EHDP, Cl2MDP and APD reflect metabolic inhibition, with selectivity for the osteoclast resulting from high affinity binding to bone mineral [6].
  • Long-term EHDP treatment induced a moderate mineralization defect, as indicated by increased absolute osteoid volume and a high proportion of osteoid surfaces devoid of adjacent osteoblasts [19].
  • We demonstrated that the expression of PTHrP decreased in the progression of bovine vascular smooth muscle cell (BVSMC) calcification and that inhibition of calcification by etidronate (EHDP) and levamisole restored PTHrP secretion, suggesting that the expression of PTHrP is associated with calcification [20].
  • 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonate, on the other hand, decreased the incorporation of [3H]proline into the collagen of calvaria and osseous tibial shafts and showed no effect on the collagen synthesis of the cartilaginous tibial heads [21].
  • The studies showed that dichloromethanediphosphonate, but not 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonate, causes articular chondrocytes to increase net collagen biosynthesis, both when measured as 3H-labelled or as non-radioactive material, in a dose-related fashion [21].

Associations of Etidronic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Etidronic acid

  • T cells were incubated with interleukin-2 and further activated with 1 2-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate and ionomycin, either in the presence or absence of EHDP [27].
  • The concentration of soluble Fas ligand in activated T cell culture supernatants was actually increased by EHDP [27].
  • Although the exact EHDP-regulated molecule that induces apoptosis of human osteoblasts is unknown at present, our study may explain part of the therapeutic action of bisphosphonates in RA complicated by bone loss [27].
  • Based on area analysis, the bisphosphonates were effective for the range 10(-7)-10(-8) M, with ABP about two to five times more effective than EHDP or APD [28].
  • This effect disappears after prolonged treatment so that EHDP, calcitonin and C12MDP have no effect after 7 weeks of daily treatment [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Etidronic acid


  1. Sodium etidronate in the treatment of Paget's disease of bone. A study of long-term results. Khairi, M.R., Altman, R.D., DeRosa, G.P., Zimmermann, J., Schenk, R.K., Johnston, C.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of daily etidronate on the osteolysis of multiple myeloma. Belch, A.R., Bergsagel, D.E., Wilson, K., O'Reilly, S., Wilson, J., Sutton, D., Pater, J., Johnston, D., Zee, B. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparative study of pamidronate disodium and etidronate disodium in the treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia. Gucalp, R., Ritch, P., Wiernik, P.H., Sarma, P.R., Keller, A., Richman, S.P., Tauer, K., Neidhart, J., Mallette, L.E., Siegel, R. J. Clin. Oncol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Use of etidronate (EHDP) in Paget's disease of bone. Johnston, C.C., Khairi, M.R., Meunier, P.J. Arthritis Rheum. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Re-186 HEDP conditioning therapy in patients with advanced acute lymphoblastic leukemia before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Döbert, N., Martin, H., Kranert, W.T., Menzel, C., Klein, S.A., Mose, S., Grünwald, F. Clinical nuclear medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Bisphosphonates directly inhibit the bone resorption activity of isolated avian osteoclasts in vitro. Carano, A., Teitelbaum, S.L., Konsek, J.D., Schlesinger, P.H., Blair, H.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Biochemical and clinical responses to dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP) in Paget's disease of bone. Douglas, D.L., Duckworth, T., Kanis, J.A., Preston, C., Beard, D.J., Smith, T.W., Underwood, I., Woodhead, J.S., Russell, R.G. Arthritis Rheum. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of hydroxyapatite crystals in synovial fluid. Halverson, P.B., McCarty, D.J. Arthritis Rheum. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. Application of reflected light microscopy to identify and quantitate resorption by isolated osteoclasts. Walsh, C.A., Beresford, J.N., Birch, M.A., Boothroyd, B., Gallagher, J.A. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. The bisphosphonate olpadronate inhibits skeletal prostate cancer progression in a green fluorescent protein nude mouse model. Yang, M., Burton, D.W., Geller, J., Hillegonds, D.J., Hastings, R.H., Deftos, L.J., Hoffman, R.M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Rhenium-186-labeled hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate dosimetry and dosing guidelines for the palliation of skeletal metastases from androgen-independent prostate cancer. Graham, M.C., Scher, H.I., Liu, G.B., Yeh, S.D., Curley, T., Daghighian, F., Goldsmith, S.J., Larson, S.M. Clin. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Skeletal nonvisualization in a bone scan secondary to intravenous etidronate therapy. Hommeyer, S.H., Varney, D.M., Eary, J.F. J. Nucl. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. High activity Rhenium-186 HEDP with autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue: a phase I study in progressive hormone refractory prostate cancer metastatic to bone. O'Sullivan, J.M., McCready, V.R., Flux, G., Norman, A.R., Buffa, F.M., Chittenden, S., Guy, M., Pomeroy, K., Cook, G., Gadd, J., Treleaven, J., Al-Deen, A., Horwich, A., Huddart, R.A., Dearnaley, D.P. Br. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Experimental parturient hypocalcemia in cows following prepartal chemical inhibition of bone resportion. Yarrington, J.T., Capen, C.C., Black, H.E., Re, R., Potts, J.T., Geho, W.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Etidronate disodium in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Heaney, R.P., Saville, P.D. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of disodium ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate on the metabolism of calcitriol in chicks. Lidor, C., Meyer, M.S., Wasserman, R.H., Edelstein, S. Biochem. J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. The influence of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonate and dichloromethanediphosphonate on lysine hydroxylation and cross-link formation in rat bone, cartilage and skin collagen. Guenther, H.L., Guenther, H.E., Fleisch, H. Biochem. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Etidronate inhibits the thyroid hormone-induced bone loss in rats assessed by bone mineral density and messenger ribonucleic acid markers of osteoblast and osteoclast function. Ongphiphadhanakul, B., Jenis, L.G., Braverman, L.E., Alex, S., Stein, G.S., Lian, J.B., Baran, D.T. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Estrogen and diphosphonate treatment provide long-term protection against osteopenia in ovariectomized rats. Wronski, T.J., Yen, C.F., Scott, K.S. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide as a local regulator of vascular calcification. Its inhibitory action on in vitro calcification by bovine vascular smooth muscle cells. Jono, S., Nishizawa, Y., Shioi, A., Morii, H. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. The effects of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonate and dichloromethanediphosphonate on collagen synthesis by rabbit articular chondrocytes and rat bone cells. Guenther, H.L., Guenther, H.E., Fleisch, H. Biochem. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Retention of etidronate in human, dog, and rat. Kasting, G.B., Francis, M.D. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. The effects of various anti-calcific, anti-rheumatic and anti-inflammatory drugs on local (simple) calcergy induced by lead acetate in the mouse. McClure, J. J. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of the diphosphonate EHDP on bone mineral metabolism during prolonged bed rest. Lockwood, D.R., Vogel, J.M., Schneider, V.S., Hulley, S.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Pamidronate. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in resorptive bone disease. Fitton, A., McTavish, D. Drugs (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Chemistry of 99mTc tracers. II. In vitro conversion of tagged HEDP and pyrophosphate (bone-seekers) into gluconate (renal agent). Effects of Ca and Fe (ii) on in vivo distribution. McRae, J., Hambright, P., Valk, P., Bearden, A.J. J. Nucl. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Etidronate inhibits human osteoblast apoptosis by inhibition of pro-apoptotic factor(s) produced by activated T cells. Abe, Y., Kawakami, A., Nakashima, T., Ejima, E., Fujiyama, K., Kiriyama, T., Ide, A., Sera, N., Usa, T., Tominaga, T., Ashizawa, K., Yokoyama, N., Eguchi, K. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of bisphosphonates on isolated rat osteoclasts as examined by reflected light microscopy. Sato, M., Grasser, W. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Long-term therapy of Paget's disease of bone with EHDP. Siris, E.S., Canfield, R.E., Jacobs, T.P., Baquiran, D.C. Arthritis Rheum. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of diphosphonate on crystallization of calcium oxalate in vitro. Pak, C.Y., Ohata, M., Holt, K. Kidney Int. (1975) [Pubmed]
  31. Duration of etidronate effect demonstrated by serial bone scintigraphy. Sandler, E.D., Parisi, M.T., Hattner, R.S. J. Nucl. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Skeletal uptake of 99mTc-diphosphonate in relation to local bone blood flow. Siegel, B.A., Donovan, R.L., Alderson, P.O., Mack, G.R. Radiology. (1976) [Pubmed]
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